International
Tables for Crystallography Volume A1 Symmetry relations between space groups Edited by Hans Wondratschek and Ulrich Müller © International Union of Crystallography 2006 
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. A1, ch. 2.1, pp. 4548
Section 2.1.3. I Maximal translationengleiche subgroups (tsubgroups)^{a}Institut für Kristallographie, Universität, D76128 Karlsruhe, Germany, and ^{b}Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, E48080 Bilbao, Spain 
In this block, all maximal tsubgroups of the plane groups and the space groups are listed individually. Maximal tsubgroups are always nonisomorphic.
For the sequence of the subgroups, see Section 2.1.2.4. There are no lattice relations for tsubgroups because the lattice is retained. Therefore, the sequence is determined only by the rising value of the index and by the decreasing spacegroup number.
The listing is similar to that of IT A and presents on one line the following information for each subgroup : Conjugate subgroups are listed together and are connected by a left brace.
The symbols have the following meaning:
Remarks:

The description of the subgroups can be explained by the following four examples.
Example 2.1.3.2.3
, No. 137, ORIGIN CHOICE 2
I Maximal translationengleiche subgroups
…
(59, ) 1; 2; 5; 6; 9; 10; 13; 14
Comments:

Example 2.1.3.2.4
: , No. 151
I Maximal translationengleiche subgroups
Comments:

Each tsubgroup is defined by its representatives, listed under `sequence' by numbers each of which designates an element of . These elements form the general position of . They are taken from the general position of and, therefore, are referred to the coordinate system of . In the general position of , however, its elements are referred to the coordinate system of . In order to allow the transfer of the data from the coordinate system of to that of , the tools for this transformation are provided in the columns `matrix' and `shift' of the subgroup tables. The designation of the quantities is that of IT A Part 5 and is repeated here for convenience.
In the following, columns and rows are designated by boldface italic lowercase letters. Point coordinates , translation parts of the symmetry operations and shifts are represented by columns. The sets of basis vectors and are represented by rows [indicated by , which means `transposed']. The quantities with unprimed symbols are referred to the coordinate system of , those with primes are referred to the coordinate system of .
The following columns will be used ( is analogous to w):
The matrices W and of the symmetry operations, as well as the matrix P for a change of basis and its inverse , are designated by boldface italic uppercase letters ( is analogous to W): Let be the row of basis vectors of and the basis of , then the basis is expressed in the basis by the system of equations ^{2}or
The column p of coordinates of the origin of is referred to the coordinate system of and is called the origin shift. The matrix–column pair (P, p) describes the transformation from the coordinate system of to that of , for details, cf. IT A, Part 5 . Therefore, P and p are chosen in the subgroup tables in the columns `matrix' and `shift', cf. Section 2.1.3.2. The column `matrix' is empty if there is no change of basis, i.e. if P is the unit matrix I. The column `shift' is empty if there is no origin shift, i.e. if p is the column o consisting of zeroes only.
A change of the coordinate system, described by the matrix–column pair (P, p), changes the point coordinates from the column x to the column . The formulae for this change do not contain the pair (P, p) itself, but the related pair :
Not only the point coordinates but also the matrix–column pairs for the symmetry operations are changed by a change of the coordinate system. A symmetry operation is described in the coordinate system of by the system of equations i.e. by the matrix–column pair (W, w). The symmetry operation will be described in the coordinate system of the subgroup by the equation and thus by the pair . This pair can be calculated from the pair by solving the equations and
Example 2.1.3.3.1
Consider the data listed for the tsubgroups of , No. 31:This means that the matrices and origin shifts are

Example 2.1.3.3.2
Evaluation of the tsubgroup data of the space group , No. 151, started in Example 2.1.3.2.4. The evaluation is now continued with the columns `sequence', `matrix' and `shift'. They are used for the transformation of the elements of to their conventional form. Only the monoclinic tsubgroups are of interest here because the trigonal subgroup is already in the standard setting.
One takes from the tables of subgroups in Chapter 2.3 Designating the three matrices by , , , one obtains with the corresponding inverse matrices and the origin shifts For the three new bases this means All these bases span orthohexagonal cells with twice the volume of the original hexagonal cell because for the matrices holds.
In the general position of , No.151, one findsThese entries represent the matrix–column pairs : Application of equations (2.1.3.8) on the matrices and (2.1.3.9) on the columns of the matrix–column pairs results in All translation vectors of are retained in the subgroups but the volume of the cells is doubled. Therefore, there must be centringtranslation vectors in the new cells. For example, the application of equation (2.1.3.9) with to the translation of with the vector , i.e. , results in the column , i.e. the centring translation of the subgroup. Either by calculation or, more easily, from a small sketch one sees that the vectors for , for (and for ) correspond to the cellcentring translation vectors of the subgroup cells.
Comments:
This example reveals that the conjugation of conjugate subgroups does not necessarily imply the conjugation of the representatives of these subgroups in the general positions of IT A. The three monoclinic subgroups in this example are conjugate in the group by the screw rotation. Conjugation of the representative (4) by the screw rotation of results in the representative (5) with the column , which is not exactly the representative (5) but one of its translationally equivalent elements of retained in .