International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume B
Reciprocal space
Edited by U. Shmueli

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. B, ch. 4.4, pp. 449-465   | 1 | 2 |
https://doi.org/10.1107/97809553602060000566

Chapter 4.4. Scattering from mesomorphic structures

P. S. Pershana*

aDivision of Engineering and Applied Science and The Physics Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Correspondence e-mail: pershan@deas.harvard.edu

References

Aeppli, G. & Bruinsma, R. (1984). Hexatic order and liquid crystal density fluctuations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2133–2136.
Aeppli, G., Litster, J. D., Birgeneau, R. J. & Pershan, P. S. (1981). High resolution X-ray study of the smectic A–smectic B phase transition and the smectic B phase in butyloxybenzylidene octylaniline. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 67, 205–214.
Aharony, A., Birgeneau, R. J., Brock, J. D. & Litster, J. D. (1986). Multicriticality in hexatic liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1012–1015.
Alben, R. (1973). Phase transitions in a fluid of biaxial particles. Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 778–781.
Als-Nielsen, J., Christensen, F. & Pershan, P. S. (1982). Smectic-A order at the surface of a nematic liquid crystal: synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1107–1110.
Als-Nielsen, J., Litster, J. D., Birgeneau, R. J., Kaplan, M., Safinya, C. R., Lindegaard, A. & Mathiesen, S. (1980). Observation of algebraic decay of positional order in a smectic liquid crystal. Phys. Rev. B, 22, 312–320.
Bak, P., Mukamel, D., Villain, J. & Wentowska, K. (1979). Commensurate–incommensurate transitions in rare-gas monolayers adsorbed on graphite and in layered charge-density-wave systems. Phys. Rev. B, 19, 1610–1613.
Barois, P., Prost, J. & Lubensky, T. C. (1985). New critical points in frustrated smectics. J. Phys. (Paris), 46, 391–399.
Beaglehole, D. (1982). Pretransition order on the surface of a nematic liquid crystal. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 319–325.
Benattar, J. J., Doucet, J., Lambert, M. & Levelut, A. M. (1979). Nature of the smectic F phase. Phys. Rev. A, 20, 2505–2509.
Benattar, J. J., Levelut, A. M. & Strzelecki, L. (1978). Etude de l'influence de la longueur moléculaire les charactéristiques des phases smectique ordonnées. J. Phys. (Paris), 39, 1233–1240.
Benattar, J. J., Moussa, F. & Lambert, M. (1980). Two-dimensional order in the smectic F phase. J. Phys. (Paris), 40, 1371–1374.
Benattar, J. J., Moussa, F. & Lambert, M. (1983). Two dimensional ordering in liquid crystals: the SmF and SmI phases. J. Chim. Phys. 80, 99–107.
Benattar, J. J., Moussa, F., Lambert, M. & Germian, C. (1981). Two kinds of two-dimensional order: the SmF and SmI phases. J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 42, L67–L70.
Benguigui, L. (1979). A Landau theory of the NAC point. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–419–C3–421.
Bensimon, D., Domany, E. & Shtrikman, S. (1983). Optical activity of cholesteric liquid crystals in the pretransitional regime and in the blue phase. Phys. Rev. A, 28, 427–433.
Billard, J., Dubois, J. C., Vaucher, C. & Levelut, A. M. (1981). Structures of the two discophases of rufigallol hexa-n-octanoate. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 66, 115–122.
Birgeneau, R. J., Garland, C. W., Kasting, G. B. & Ocko, B. M. (1981). Critical behavior near the nematic–smectic-A transition in butyloxybenzilidene octylaniline (4O.8). Phys. Rev. A, 24, 2624–2634.
Birgeneau, R. J. & Litster, J. D. (1978). Bond orientational order model for smectic B liquid crystals. J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 39, L399–L402.
Blinc, R. & Levanyuk, A. P. (1986). Editors. Modern problems in condensed matter sciences, incommensurate phases in dielectrics, 2. Materials. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Brisbin, D., De Hoff, R., Lockhart, T. E. & Johnson, D. L. (1979). Specific heat near the nematic–smectic-A tricritical point. Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1171–1174.
Brock, J. D., Aharony, A., Birgeneau, R. J., Evans-Lutterodt, K. W., Litster, J. D., Horn, P. M., Stephenson, G. B. & Tajbakhsh, A. R. (1986). Orientational and positional order in a tilted hexatic liquid crystal phase. Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 98–101.
Brooks, J. D. & Taylor, G. H. (1968). In Chemistry and physics of carbon, Vol. 3, edited by P. L. Walker Jr, pp. 243–286. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Bruinsma, R. & Nelson, D. R. (1981). Bond orientational order in smectic liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. B, 23, 402–410.
Caillé, A. (1972). Remarques sur la diffusion des rayons X dans les smectiques A. C. R. Acad. Sci. Sér. B, 274, 891–893.
Carlson, J. M. & Sethna, J. P. (1987). Theory of the ripple phase in hydrated phospholipid bilayers. Phys. Rev. A, 36, 3359–3363.
Chan, K. K., Deutsch, M., Ocko, B. M., Pershan, P. S. & Sorensen, L. B. (1985). Integrated X-ray scattering intensity measurement of the order parameter at the nematic to smectic-A phase transition. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 920–923.
Chan, K. K., Pershan, P. S., Sorensen, L. B. & Hardouin, F. (1985). X-ray scattering study of the smectic-A1 to smectic-A2 transition. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1694–1697.
Chan, K. K., Pershan, P. S., Sorensen, L. B. & Hardouin, F. (1986). X-ray studies of transitions between nematic, smectic-A1, -A2, and -Ad phases. Phys. Rev. A, 34, 1420–1433.
Chandrasekhar, S. (1982). In Advances in liquid crystals, Vol. 5, edited by G. H. Brown, pp. 47–78. London/New York: Academic Press.
Chandrasekhar, S. (1983). Liquid crystals of disk-like molecules. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 309, 93–103.
Chandrasekhar, S., Sadashiva, B. K. & Suresh, K. A. (1977). Liquid crystals of disk like molecules. Pramana, 9, 471–480.
Chapman, D., Williams, R. M. & Ladbrooke, B. D. (1967). Physical studies of phospholipids. VI. Thermotropic and lyotropic mesomorphism of some 1,2-diacylphosphatidylcholines (lecithins). Chem. Phys. Lipids, 1, 445–475.
Chen, J. H. & Lubensky, T. C. (1976). Landau–Ginzberg mean-field theory for the nematic to smectic-C and nematic to smectic-A phase transitions. Phys. Rev. A, 14, 1202–1207.
Chu, K. C. & McMillan, W. L. (1977). Unified Landau theory for the nematic, smectic A and smectic C phases of liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. A, 15, 1181–1187.
Coates, D. & Gray, G. W. (1975). A correlation of optical features of amorphous liquid–cholesteric liquid crystal transitions. Phys. Lett. A, 51, 335–336.
Collett, J. (1983). PhD thesis, Harvard University, USA. Unpublished.
Collett, J., Pershan, P. S., Sirota, E. B. & Sorensen, L. B. (1984). Synchrotron X-ray study of the thickness dependence of the phase diagram of thin liquid-crystal films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 356–359.
Collett, J., Sorensen, L. B., Pershan, P. S. & Als-Nielsen, J. (1985). X-ray scattering study of restacking transitions in the crystalline-B phases of heptyloxybenzylidene heptylaniline 7O.7. Phys. Rev. A, 32, 1036–1043.
Collett, J., Sorensen, L. B., Pershan, P. S., Litster, J., Birgeneau, R. J. & Als-Nielsen, J. (1982). Synchrotron X-ray study of novel crystalline-B phases in 7O.7 Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 553–556.
Crooker, P. P. (1983). The cholesteric blue phase: a progress report. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 98, 31–45.
Davey, S. C., Budai, J., Goodby, J. W., Pindak, R. & Moncton, D. E. (1984). X-ray study of the hexatic-B to smectic-A phase transition in liquid crystal films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2129–2132.
Davidov, D., Safinya, C. R., Kaplan, M., Dana, S. S., Schaetzing, R., Birgeneau, R. J. & Litster, J. D. (1979). High-resolution X-ray and light-scattering study of critical behavior associated with the nematic–smectic-A transition in 4-cyano-4′-octylbiphenyl. Phys. Rev. B, 19, 1657–1663.
De Gennes, P. G. (1969a). Conjectures sur l'état smectique. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 30, C4–65–C4–71.
De Gennes, P. G. (1969b). Phenomenology of short-range-order effects in the isotropic phase of nematic materials. Phys. Lett. A, 30, 454–455.
De Gennes, P. G. (1971). Short range order effects in the isotropic phase of nematics and cholesterics. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 12, 193–214.
De Gennes, P. G. (1972). An analogy between superconductors and smectics A. Solid State Commun. 10, 753–756.
De Gennes, P. G. (1973). Some remarks on the polymorphism of smectics. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 21, 49–76.
De Gennes, P. G. (1974). The physics of liquid crystals. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Demus, D., Diele, S., Klapperstück, M., Link, V. & Zaschke, H. (1971). Investigation of a smectic tetramorphous substance. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 15, 161–169.
Destrade, C., Gasparoux, H., Foucher, P., Tinh, N. H., Malthête, J. & Jacques, J. (1983). Molecules discoides et polymorphisme mesomorphe. J. Chim. Phys. 80, 137–148.
De Vries, H. L. (1951). Rotary power and other optical properties of liquid crystals. Acta Cryst. 4, 219–226.
Diele, S., Brand, P. & Sackmann, H. (1972). X-ray diffraction and polymorphism of smectic liquid crystals. II. D and E modifications. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 17, 163–169.
Djurek, D., Baturic-Rubcic, J. & Franulovic, K. (1974). Specific-heat critical exponents near the nematic–smectic-A phase transition. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1126–1129.
Doucet, J. (1979). In Molecular physics of liquid crystals, edited by G. W. Gray & G. R. Luckhurst, pp. 317–341. London/New York: Academic Press.
Doucet, J. & Levelut, A. M. (1977). X-ray study of the ordered smectic phases in some benzylideneanilines. J. Phys. (Paris), 38, 1163–1170.
Doucet, J., Levelut, A. M., Lambert, M., Lievert, L. & Strzelecki, L. (1975). Nature de la phase smectique. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 36, C1–13–C1–19.
Etherington, G., Leadbetter, A. J., Wang, X. J., Gray, G. W. & Tajbakhsh, A. (1986). Structure of the smectic D phase. Liq. Cryst. 1, 209–214.
Faetti, S., Gatti, M., Palleschi, V. & Sluckin, T. J. (1985). Almost critical behavior of the anchoring energy at the interface between a nematic liquid crystal and a substrate. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1681–1684.
Faetti, S. & Palleschi, V. (1984). Nematic isotropic interface of some members of the homologous series of the 4-cyano-4′-(n-alkyl)biphenyl liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. A, 30, 3241–3251.
Fan, C. P. & Stephen, M. J. (1970). Isotropic–nematic phase transition in liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 500–503.
Farber, A. S. (1985). PhD thesis, Brandeis University, USA. Unpublished.
Fleming, R. M., Moncton, D. E., McWhan, D. B. & DiSalvo, F. J. (1980). In Ordering in two dimensions. Proceedings of an International Conference held at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, edited by S. K. Sinha, pp. 131–134. New York: North-Holland.
Fontell, K. (1974). In Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, Vol. II, edited by G. W. Gray & P. A. Winsor, pp. 80–109. Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood.
Fontes, E., Heiney, P. A., Haseltine, J. H. & Smith, A. B. III (1986). High resolution X-ray scattering study of the multiply reentrant polar mesogen DB9ONO2. J. Phys. (Paris), 47, 1533–1539.
Frank, F. C. & van der Merwe, J. H. (1949). One-dimensional dislocations. I. Static theory. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 198, 205–216.
Freiser, M. J. (1971). Successive transitions in a nematic liquid. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 14, 165–182.
Friedel, G. (1922). Les états mésomorphes de la matière. Ann. Phys. (Paris), 18, 273–274.
Gane, P. A. C. & Leadbetter, A. J. (1981). The crystal and molecular structure of N-(4-n-octyloxybenzylidene)-4′-butylaniline (8O.4) and the crystal–smectic G transition. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 78, 183–200.
Gane, P. A. C. & Leadbetter, A. J. (1983). Modulated crystal B phases and the B- to G-phase transition in two types of liquid crystalline compounds. J. Phys. C, 16, 2059–2067.
Gane, P. A. C., Leadbetter, A. J., Wrighton, P. G., Goodby, J. W., Gray, G. W. & Tajbakhsh, A. R. (1983). The phase behavior of bis-(4′-n-heptyloxybenzylidene)-1,4-phenylenediamine HEPTOBPD, crystal J and K phases. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 100, 67–74.
Gannon, M. G. J. & Faber, T. E. (1978). The surface tension of nematic liquid crystals. Philos. Mag. A37, 117–135.
Garland, C. W., Meichle, M., Ocko, B. M., Kortan, A. R., Safinya, C. R., Yu, L. J., Litster, J. D. & Birgeneau, R. J. (1983). Critical behavior at the nematic–smectic-A transition in butyloxybenzylidene heptylaniline (4O.7). Phys. Rev. A, 27, 3234–3240.
Gransbergen, E. F., De Jeu, W. H. & Als-Nielsen, J. (1986). Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron X-ray scattering. J. Phys. (Paris), 47, 711–718.
Gray, G. W. & Goodby, J. W. (1984). Smectic liquid crystals: textures and structures. Glasgow: Leonard Hill.
Gray, G. W., Jones, B. & Marson, F. (1957). Mesomorphism and chemical constitution. Part VIII. The effect of 3′-substituents on the mesomorphism of the 4′-n-alkoxydiphenyl-4-carboxylic acids and their alkyl esters. J. Chem. Soc. 1, 393–401.
Grinstein, G. & Toner, J. (1983). Dislocation-loop theory of the nematic–smectic A–smectic C multicritical point. Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2386–2389.
Guillon, D. & Skoulios, A. (1987). Molecular model for the R smectic DS mesophase. Europhys. Lett. 3, 79–85.
Guillon, D., Skoulios, A. & Benattar, J. J. (1986). Volume and X-ray diffraction study of terephthal-bis-4-n-decylaniline (TBDA). J. Phys. (Paris), 47, 133–138.
Gunther, L., Imry, Y. & Lajzerowicz, J. (1980). X-ray scattering in smectic-A liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. A, 22, 1733–1740.
Guyot-Sionnest, P., Hsiung, H. & Shen, Y. R. (1986). Surface polar ordering in a liquid crystal observed by optical second-harmonic generation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2963–2966.
Halperin, B. I. & Nelson, D. R. (1978). Theory of two-dimensional melting. Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 121–124, 519(E).
Hardouin, F., Levelut, A. M., Achard, M. F. & Sigaud, G. (1983). Polymorphisme des substances mésogenes à molécules polaires. I. Physico-chimie et structure. J. Chim. Phys. 80, 53–64.
Hardouin, F., Levelut, A. M., Benattar, J. J. & Sigaud, G. (1980). X-ray investigations of the smectic A1–smectic A2 transition. Solid State Commun. 33, 337–340.
Hardouin, F., Sigaud, G., Tinh, N. H. & Achard, M. F. (1981). A fluid smectic A antiphase in a pure nitro rod-like compound. J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 42, L63–L66.
Hardouin, F., Tinh, N. H., Achard, M. F. & Levelut, A. M. (1982). A new thermotropic smectic phase made of ribbons. J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 43, L327–L331.
Helfrich, W. (1979). Structure of liquid crystals especially order in two dimensions. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–105–C3–114.
Hendrikx, Y., Charvolin, J. & Rawiso, M. (1986). Uniaxial–biaxial transition in lyotropic nematic solutions: local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase. Phys. Rev. B, 33, 3534–3537.
Hirth, J. P., Pershan, P. S., Collett, J., Sirota, E. & Sorensen, L. B. (1984). Dislocation model for restacking phase transitions in crystalline-B liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 473–476.
Hornreich, R. M., Luban, M. & Shtrikman, S. (1975). Critical behavior at the onset of k-space instability on the lambda line. Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1678–1681.
Hornreich, R. M. & Shtrikman, S. (1983). Theory of light scattering in cholesteric blue phases. Phys. Rev. A, 28, 1791–1807.
Huang, C. C. & Lien, S. C. (1981). Nature of a nematic–smectic-A–smectic-C multicritical point. Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1917–1920.
Huang, C. C., Lien, S. C., Dumrongrattana, S. & Chiang, L. Y. (1984). Calorimetric studies near the smectic-A1–smectic-Ã phase transition of a liquid crystal compound. Phys. Rev. A, 30, 965–967.
Huse, D. A. (1985). Fisher renormalization at the smectic-A1 to smectic-A2 transition in a mixture. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2228.
Kasting, G. B., Lushington, K. J. & Garland, C. W. (1980). Critical heat capacity near the nematic–smectic-A transition in octyloxycyanobiphenyl in the range 1–2000 bar. Phys. Rev. B, 22, 321–331.
Kittel, C. (1963). Quantum theory of solids. New York: John Wiley.
Kosterlitz, J. M. & Thouless, D. G. (1973). Ordering, metastability and phase transitions in two-dimensions. J. Phys. C, 6, 1181–1203.
Landau, L. D. (1965). In Collected papers of L. D. Landau, edited by D. ter Haar, pp. 193–216. New York: Gordon and Breach.
Landau, L. D. & Lifshitz, E. M. (1958). Statistical physics. London: Pergamon Press.
Lawson, K. D. & Flautt, T. J. (1967). Magnetically oriented lyotropic liquid crystalline phases. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89, 5489–5491.
Leadbetter, A. J., Durrant, J. L. A. & Rugman, M. (1977). The density of 4-n-octyl-4′-cyano-biphenyl (8CB). Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 34, 231–235.
Leadbetter, A. J., Frost, J. C., Gaughan, J. P., Gray, G. W. & Mosley, A. (1979). The structure of smectic A phases of compounds with cyano end groups. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–375–C3–380.
Leadbetter, A. J., Frost, J. C., Gaughan, J. P. & Mazid, M. A. (1979). The structure of the crystal, smectic E and smectic B forms of IBPAC. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–185–C3–192.
Leadbetter, A. J., Frost, J. C. & Mazid, M. A. (1979). Interlayer correlations in smectic B phases. J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 40, L325–L329.
Leadbetter, A. J., Gaughan, J. P., Kelley, B., Gray, G. W. & Goodby, J. J. (1979). Characterisation and structure of some new smectic F phases. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–178–C3–184.
Leadbetter, A. J., Mazid, M. A. & Kelly, B. A. (1979). Structure of the smectic-B phase and the nature of the smectic-B to H transition in the N-(4-n-alkoxybenzylidene)-4′-alkylanilines. Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 630–633.
Leadbetter, A. J., Mazid, M. A. & Malik, K. M. A. (1980). The crystal and molecular structure of isobutyl 4-(4′-phenylbenzylideneamino) cinnamate (IBPBAC) – and the crystal smectic E transition. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 61, 39–60.
Leadbetter, A. J., Mazid, M. A. & Richardson, R. M. (1980). In Liquid crystals, edited by S. Chandrasekhar, pp. 65–79. London: Heyden.
Leadbetter, A. J., Richardson, R. M. & Carlile, C. J. (1976). The nature of the smectic E phase. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 37, C3–65–C3–68.
Lee, S. D. & Meyer, R. B. (1986). Computations of the phase equilibrium, elastic constants, and viscosities of a hard-rod nematic liquid crystal. J. Chem. Phys. 84, 3443–3448.
Levelut, A. M. (1976). Etude de l'ordre local lié à la rotation des molécules dans la phase smectique B. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 37, C3–51–C3–54.
Levelut, A. M. (1983). Structures des phases mésomorphes formée de molécules discoides. J. Chim. Phys. 80, 149–161.
Levelut, A. M., Doucet, J. & Lambert, M. (1974). Etude par diffusion de rayons X de la nature des phases smectiques B et de la transition de phase solide–smectique B. J. Phys. (Paris), 35, 773–779.
Levelut, A. M. & Lambert, M. (1971). Structure des cristaux liquides smectic B. C. R. Acad Sci. Sér. B, 272, 1018–1021.
Levelut, A. M., Tarento, R. J., Hardouin, F., Achard, M. F. & Sigaud, G. (1981). Number of SA phases. Phys. Rev. A, 24, 2180–2186.
Liebert, L. E. (1978). Editor. Liquid crystals. In Solid state physics: advances in research and applications, edited by H. Ehrenreich, F. Seitz & D. Turnbull, Suppl. 14. New York: Academic Press.
Litster, J. D., Als-Nielsen, J., Birgeneau, R. J., Dana, S. S., Davidov, D., Garcia-Golding, F., Kaplan, M., Safinya, C. R. & Schaetzing, R. (1979). High resolution X-ray and light scattering studies of bilayer smectic A compounds. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–339–C3–344.
Lubensky, T. C. (1983). The nematic to smectic A transition: a theoretical overview. J. Chim. Phys. 80, 31–43.
Lubensky, T. C. (1987). Mean field theory for the biaxial nematic phase and the NNUAC critical point. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 146, 55–69.
Lubensky, T. C. & Ingersent, K. (1986). Patterns in systems with competing incommensurate lengths. Preprint.
Luzzati, V. & Reiss-Husson, F. (1966). Structure of the cubic phase of lipid–water systems. Nature (London), 210, 1351–1352.
Ma, S. K. (1976). Modern theory of critical phenomena. Reading, MA: Benjamin.
McMillan, W. L. (1972). X-ray scattering from liquid crystals. I. Cholesteryl nonanoate and myristate. Phys. Rev. A, 6, 936–947.
McMillan, W. L. (1973a) Measurement of smectic-A-phase order-parameter fluctuations near a second-order smectic-A–nematic-phase transition. Phys. Rev. A, 7, 1419–1422.
McMillan, W. L. (1973b). Measurement of smectic-A-phase order-parameter fluctuations in the nematic phase of p-n-octyloxybenzylidene-p′-toluidine. Phys. Rev. A, 7, 1673–1678.
McMillan, W. L. (1973c). Measurement of smectic-phase order-parameter fluctuations in the nematic phase of heptyloxybenzene. Phys. Rev. A, 8, 328–331.
Mada, H. & Kobayashi, S. (1981). Surface order parameter of 4-n-heptyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 66, 57–60.
Maier, W. & Saupe, A. (1958). Eine einfache molekulare Theorie des nematischen kristallinglüssigen Zustandes. Z. Naturforsch. Teil A, 13, 564–566.
Maier, W. & Saupe, A. (1959). Eine einfache molekularestatistiche Theorie der nematischen kristallinglüssigen phase. Teil I. Z. Naturforsch. Teil A, 14, 882–889.
Malthête, J., Liebert, L., Levelut, A. M. & Galerne, Y. (1986). Nématic biaxe thermotrope. C. R. Acad. Sci. 303, 1073–1076.
Martin, P. C., Parodi, O. & Pershan, P. S. (1972). Unified hydrodynamic theory for crystals, liquid crystals, and normal fluids. Phys. Rev. A, 6, 2401–2420.
Martinez-Miranda, L. J., Kortan, A. R. & Birgeneau, R. J. (1986). X-ray study of fluctuations near the nematic–smectic-A–smectic-C multicritical point. Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2264–2267.
Meiboom, S., Sethna, J. P., Anderson, P. W. & Brinkman, W. F. (1981). Theory of the blue phase of cholesteric liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1216–1219.
Miyano, K. (1979). Wall-induced pretransitional birefringence: a new tool to study boundary aligning forces in liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 51–54.
Moncton, D. E. & Pindak, R. (1979). Long-range order in two- and three-dimensional smectic-B liquid crystal films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 701–704.
Moncton, D. E., Pindak, R., Davey, S. C. & Brown, G. S. (1982). Melting of variable thickness liquid crystal thin films: a synchrotron X-ray study. Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1865–1868.
Moncton, D. E., Stephens, P. W., Birgeneau, R. J., Horn, P. M. & Brown, G. S. (1981). Synchrotron X-ray study of the commensurate–incommensurate transition of monolayer krypton on graphite. Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1533–1536.
Nelson, D. R. & Halperin, B. I. (1979). Dislocation-mediated melting in two dimensions. Phys. Rev. B, 19, 2457–2484.
Nelson, D. R. & Halperin, B. I. (1980). Solid and fluid phases in smectic layers with tilted molecules. Phys. Rev. B, 21, 5312–5329.
Nelson, D. R. & Toner, J. (1981). Bond-orientational order, dislocation loops and melting of solids and smectic-A liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. B, 24, 363–387.
Neto, A. M. F., Galerne, Y., Levelut, A. M. & Liebert, L. (1985). Pseudo lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematies: a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment. J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499–L505.
Ocko, B. M., Birgeneau, R. J. & Litster, J. D. (1986). Crossover to tricritical behavior at the nematic to smectic A transition: an X-ray scattering study. Z. Phys. B62, 487–497.
Ocko, B. M., Birgeneau, R. J., Litster, J. D. & Neubert, M. E. (1984). Critical and tricritical behavior at the nematic to smectic-A transition. Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 208–211.
Ocko, B. M., Braslau, A., Pershan, P. S., Als-Nielsen, J. & Deutsch, M. (1986). Quantized layer growth at liquid crystal surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 94–97.
Ocko, B. M., Pershan, P. S., Safinya, C. R. & Chiang, L. Y. (1987). Incommensurate smectic order at the free surface in the nematic phase of DB7NO2. Phys. Rev. A, 35, 1868–1872.
Onsager, L. (1949). The effects of shapes on the interaction of colloidal particles. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 51, 627–659.
Peierls, R. E. (1934). Transformation temperatures. Helv. Phys. Acta Suppl. 2, 81–83.
Pershan, P. S. (1974). Dislocation effects in smectic-A liquid crystals. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1590–1604.
Pershan, P. S. (1979). Amphiphilic molecules and liquid crystals. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–423–C3–432.
Pershan, P. S. & Als-Nielsen, J. (1984). X-ray reflectivity from the surface of a liquid crystal: surface structure and absolute value of critical fluctuations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 759–762.
Pershan, P. S., Braslau, A., Weiss, A. H. & Als-Nielsen, J. (1987). Smectic layering at the free surface of liquid crystals in the nematic phase: X-ray reflectivity. Phys. Rev. A, 35, 4800–4813.
Pershan, P. S. & Prost, J. (1975). Dislocation and impurity effects in smectic-A liquid crystals. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2343–2353.
Pindak, R., Moncton, D. E., Davey, S. C. & Goodby, J. W. (1981). X-ray observation of a stacked hexatic liquid-crystal B phase. Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1135–1138.
Pokrovsky, V. L. & Talapov, A. L. (1979). Ground state, spectrum, and phase diagram of two-dimensional incommensurate crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 65–67.
Prost, J. (1979). Smectic A to smectic A phase transition. J. Phys. (Paris), 40, 581–587.
Prost, J. (1984). The smectic state. Adv. Phys. 33, 1–46.
Prost, J. & Barois, P. (1983). Polymorphism in polar mesogens. II. Theoretical aspects. J. Chim. Phys. 80, 65–81.
Ratna, B. R., Nagabhushana, C., Raja, V. N., Shashidhar, R. & Chandrasekhar, S. (1986). Density, dielectric and X-ray studies of smectic A–smectic A transitions. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 138, 245–257.
Ratna, B. R., Shashidhar, R. & Raja, V. N. (1985). Smectic-A phase with two collinear incommensurate density modulations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1476–1478.
Richardson, R. M., Leadbetter, A. J. & Frost, J. C. (1978). The structure and dynamics of the smectic B phase. Ann. Phys. 3, 177–186.
Sadoc, J. F. & Charvolin, J. (1986). Frustration in bilayers and topologies of liquid crystals of amphiphilic molecules. J. Phys. (Paris), 47, 683–691.
Safinya, C. R., Clark, N. A., Liang, K. S., Varady, W. A. & Chiang, L. Y. (1985). Synchrotron X-ray scattering study of freely suspended discotic strands. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 123, 205–216.
Safinya, C. R., Liang, K. S., Varady, W. A., Clark, N. A. & Andersson, G. (1984). Synchrotron X-ray study of the orientational ordering D2–D1 structural phase transition of freely suspended discotic strands in triphenylene hexa-n-dodecanoate. Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1172–1175.
Safinya, C. R., Roux, D., Smith, G. S., Sinha, S. K., Dimon, P., Clark, N. A. & Bellocq, A. M. (1986). Steric interactions in a model multimembrane system: a synchrotron X-ray study. Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2718–2721.
Safinya, C. R., Varady, W. A., Chiang, L. Y. & Dimon, P. (1986). X-ray study of the nematic phase and smectic-A1 to smectic-Ã phase transition in heptylphenyl nitrobenzoyloxybenzoate (DB7NO2). Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 432–435.
Safran, S. A. & Clark, N. A. (1987). Editors. Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids. New York: John Wiley.
Shipley, C. G., Hitchcock, P. B., Mason, R. & Thomas, K. M. (1974). Structural chemistry of 1,2-diauroyl-DL-phosphatidylethanolamine: molecular conformation and intermolecular packing of phospholipids. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 71, 3036–3040.
Sigaud, G., Hardouin, F., Achard, M. F. & Gasparoux, H. (1979). Anomalous transitional behaviour in mixtures of liquid crystals: a new transition of SA–SA type? J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 40, C3–356–C3–359.
Sirota, E. B., Pershan, P. S. & Deutsch, M. (1987). Modulated crystalline-B phases in liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. A, 36, 2902–2913.
Sirota, E. B., Pershan, P. S., Sorensen, L. B. & Collett, J. (1985). X-ray studies of tilted hexatic phases in thin liquid-crystal films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2039–2042.
Sirota, E. B., Pershan, P. S., Sorensen, L. B. & Collett, J. (1987). X-ray and optical studies of the thickness dependence of the phase diagram of liquid crystal films. Phys. Rev. A, 36, 2890–2901.
Small, D. (1967). Phase equilibria and structure of dry and hydrated egg lecithin. J. Lipid Res. 8, 551–557.
Smith, G. W. & Garland, Z. G. (1973). Liquid crystalline phases in a doubly homologous series of benzylideneanilines – textures and scanning calorimetry. J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3214–3228.
Smith, G. W., Garland, Z. G. & Curtis, R. J. (1973). Phase transitions in mesomorphic benzylideneanilines. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 19, 327–330.
Solomon, L. & Litster, J. D. (1986). Light scattering measurements in the 7S5-8OCB nematic–smectic-A–smectic-C liquid-crystal system. Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2268–2271.
Sorensen, L. B. (1987). Private communication.
Sorensen, L. B., Amador, S., Sirota, E. B., Stragler, H. & Pershan, P. S. (1987). Unpublished.
Springer, T. (1977). In Current physics, Vol. 3. Dynamics of solids and liquids by neutron scattering, edited by S. W. Lovesey & T. Springer, pp. 255–300 (see p. 281). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Sprokel, G. E. (1980). The physics and chemistry of liquid crystal devices. New York: Plenum.
Stegemeyer, H. & Bergmann, K. (1981). In Liquid crystals of one- and two-dimensional order. Springer Series in Chemical Physics 11, edited by W. Helfrich & G. Heppke, pp. 161–175. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer-Verlag.
Tardieu, A. & Billard, J. (1976). On the structure of the `smectic D modification'. J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 37, C3-79–C3-81.
Tardieu, A. & Luzzati, V. (1970). Polymorphism of lipids: a novel cubic phase – a cage-like network of rods with enclosed spherical micelles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 219, 11–17.
Thoen, J., Marynissen, H. & Van Dael, W. (1982). Temperature dependence of the enthalpy and the heat capacity of the liquid-crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB). Phys. Rev. A, 26, 2886–2905.
Thoen, J., Marynissen, H. & Van Dael, W. (1984). Nematic–smectic-A tricritical point in alkylcyanobiphenyl liquid crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 5, 204–207.
Villain, J. (1980). In Order in strongly fluctuating condensed matter system, edited by T. Riste, pp. 221–260. New York: Plenum.
Wang, J. & Lubensky, T. C. (1984). Theory of the SA1–SA2 phase transition in liquid crystal. Phys. Rev. A, 29, 2210–2217.
Warren, B. E. (1968). X-ray diffraction. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Winkor, M. J. & Clarke, R. (1986). Long-period stacking transitions in intercalated graphite. Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2072–2075.
Young, A. P. (1979). Melting and the vector Coulomb gas in two dimensions. Phys. Rev. B, 19, 1855–1866.
Young, C. Y., Pindak, R., Clark, N. A. & Meyer, R. B. (1978). Light-scattering study of two-dimensional molecular-orientation fluctuations in a freely suspended ferroelectric liquid crystal film. Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 773–776.
Yu, L. J. & Saupe, A. (1980). Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate–1-decanol–water mixtures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1000–1003.