International
Tables for Crystallography Volume B Reciprocal space Edited by U. Shmueli © International Union of Crystallography 2010 
International Tables for Crystallography (2010). Vol. B, ch. 1.3, pp. 6364

The convergence of the Fourier series for is usually examined from the classical point of view (Section 1.3.2.6.10). The summation of multiple Fourier series meets with considerable difficulties, because there is no natural order in to play the role of the natural order in (Ash, 1976). In crystallography, however, the structure factors are often obtained within spheres for increasing resolution (decreasing Δ). Therefore, successive estimates of are most naturally calculated as the corresponding partial sums (Section 1.3.2.6.10.1):This may be writtenwhere is the `spherical Dirichlet kernel' exhibits numerous negative ripples around its central peak. Thus the `series termination errors' incurred by using instead of consist of negative ripples around each atom, and may lead to a Gibbslike phenomenon (Section 1.3.2.6.10.1) near a molecular boundary.
As in one dimension, Cesàro sums (arithmetic means of partial sums) have better convergence properties, as they lead to a convolution by a `spherical Fejér kernel' which is everywhere positive. Thus Cesàro summation will always produce positive approximations to a positive electron density. Other positive summation kernels were investigated by Pepinsky (1952) and by Waser & Schomaker (1953).
References
Ash, J. M. (1976). Multiple trigonometric series. In Studies in Harmonic Analysis, edited by J. M. Ash, pp. 76–96. MAA studies in mathematics, Vol. 13. The Mathematical Association of America.Pepinsky, R. (1952). The use of positive kernels in Fourier syntheses of crystal structures. In Computing Methods and the Phase Problem in Xray Crystal Analysis, edited by R. Pepinsky, pp. 319–338. State College: Penn. State University.
Waser, J. & Schomaker, V. (1953). The Fourier inversion of diffraction data. Rev. Mod. Phys. 25, 671–690.