International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume B
Reciprocal space
Edited by U. Shmueli

International Tables for Crystallography (2010). Vol. B, ch. 1.3, p. 90   | 1 | 2 |

Section 1.3.4.3.6.6. Treatment of centred lattices

G. Bricognea

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1.3.4.3.6.6. Treatment of centred lattices

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Lattice centring is an instance of the duality between periodization and decimation: the extra translational periodicity of ρ induces a decimation of described by the reflection conditions' on h. As was pointed out in Section 1.3.4.2.2.3, nonprimitive lattices are introduced in order to retain the same matrix representation for a given geometric symmetry operation in all the arithmetic classes in which it occurs. From the computational point of view, therefore, the main advantage in using centred lattices is that it maximizes decomposability (Section 1.3.4.2.2.4); reindexing to a primitive lattice would for instance often destroy the diagonal character of the matrix representing a dyad.

In the usual procedure involving three successive one-dimensional transforms, the loss of efficiency caused by the duplication of densities or the systematic vanishing of certain classes of structure factors may be avoided by using a multiplexing/demultiplexing technique (Ten Eyck, 1973):

 (i) for base-centred or body-centred lattices, two successive planes of structure factors may be overlaid into a single plane; after transformation, the results belonging to each plane may be separated by parity considerations; (ii) for face-centred lattices the same method applies, using four successive planes (the third and fourth with an origin translation); (iii) for rhombohedral lattices in hexagonal coordinates, three successive planes may be overlaid, and the results may be separated by linear combinations involving cube roots of unity.

The three-dimensional factorization technique of Section 1.3.4.3.4.1 is particularly well suited to the treatment of centred lattices: if the decimation matrix of N contains as a factor a matrix which integerizes' all the nonprimitive lattice vectors, then centring is reflected by the systematic vanishing of certain classes of vectors of decimated data or results, which can simply be omitted from the calculation. An alternative possibly is to reindex on a primitive lattice and use different representative matrices for the symmetry operations: the loss of decomposability is of little consequence in this three-dimensional scheme, although it substantially complicates the definition of the cocycles and .

References

Ten Eyck, L. F. (1973). Crystallographic fast Fourier transforms. Acta Cryst. A29, 183–191.