International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume B
Reciprocal space
Edited by U. Shmueli

International Tables for Crystallography (2010). Vol. B, ch. 2.5, pp. 311-312   | 1 | 2 |

Section 2.5.3.2.6. Projection diffraction groups

M. Tanakaf

2.5.3.2.6. Projection diffraction groups

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HOLZ reflections appear as excess HOLZ rings far outside the ZOLZ reflection discs and as deficit lines in the ZOLZ discs. By ignoring these weak diffraction effects with components along the beam direction, we may obtain information about the symmetry of the sample as projected along the beam direction. Thus when HOLZ reflections are weak and no deficit HOLZ lines are seen in the ZOLZ discs, the symmetry elements found from the CBED patterns are only those of the specimen projected along the zone axis. The projection of the specimen along the zone axis causes horizontal mirror symmetry m′, the corresponding CBED symmetry being 1R. When symmetry 1R is added to the 31 diffraction groups, ten projection diffraction groups having symmetry symbol 1R are derived as shown in column VI of Table 2.5.3.3[link]. If only ZOLZ reflections are observed in CBED patterns, a projection diffraction group instead of a diffraction group is obtained, where only the pattern symmetries given in the rows of the diffraction groups having symmetry symbol 1R in Table 2.5.3.3[link] should be consulted. Two projection diffraction groups obtained from two different zone axes are the minimum needed to determine a crystal point group, because it is constructed by the three-dimensional combination of symmetry elements. It should be noted that if a diffraction group is determined carelessly from CBED patterns with no HOLZ lines, the wrong crystal point group is obtained.








































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