International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 10.1, pp. 960-961

Section 10.1.3. Responsibilities

D. C. Creagha and S. Martinez-Carrerab

aDivision of Health, Design, and Science, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, and bSan Ernesto, 6-Esc. 3, 28002 Madrid, Spain

10.1.3. Responsibilities

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10.1.3.1. General

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In laboratories using ionizing radiations, a clearly defined chain of responsibility has to be established with the employer accepting the responsibility for the provision of services and equipment for the implementation of radiation-protection procedures under whatever legal or administrative procedures are valid for the country in question.

10.1.3.2. The radiation safety officer

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The radiation safety officer (RSO) is responsible for the controlled areas within a given establishment. He (or she) is responsible to his employer for the implementation of a radiation-protection programme. His duties will vary according to the legislation and administrative arrangements applicable to his institution but will include, inter alia:

  • (i) giving advice on working practices to management and employees;

  • (ii) monitoring and surveying all controlled areas;

  • (iii) maintaining all equipment for monitoring radiation levels, including personal radiation monitoring devices;

  • (iv) keeping records of radiation levels in controlled areas, dosages to employees, stocks and locations of all radioactive materials and irradiating apparatus;

  • (v) keeping in safe custody all radioactive materials;

  • (vi) arranging the safe disposal of all radioactive waste;

  • (vii) preparing the local rules concerning accident safety and emergencies;

  • (viii) recording and reporting to the appropriate authorities all breaches of the radiation-protection rules.

10.1.3.3. The worker

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In English common law, the employer is responsible for the actions of his employees but this does not absolve personnel from a duty of care to their fellows. Ultimately, the responsibility for radiation protection lies with the worker concerned. He (or she) should:

  • (i) ensure that he has an appropriate radiation dosimetry device and wears it;

  • (ii) inform the RSO whenever he is to work with radioactive materials or irradiating devices;

  • (iii) report to the RSO all known or suspected unsafe situations;

  • (iv) be aware of the directionality of scattered beams, particularly in the case of X-rays scattered from extended single crystals;

  • (v) be familiar with the relevant codes of practice as laid down in legislation and local instructions.

10.1.3.4. Primary-dose limits

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Two classes of people are envisaged:

  • (i) persons exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of the pursuance of their duties,

  • (ii) members of the general public.

In Table 10.1.2[link], the maximum primary dose (MPD) for those in class (i) and class (ii) is tabulated. SI units are shown in bold type, and the earlier units are shown in parentheses in light type.

Planned special exposures are permissible in emergency circumstances provided that in any single exposure twice the annual dose limit is not exceeded, and in a lifetime five times the limit.

Also, to allow for the different biological effectiveness of different types of radiation, the quality factor listed in Table 10.1.3[link] is applied to determine the dose.

References

National Health and Medical Research Council (1977). Revised radiation protection standards for individuals exposed to ionizing radiation (as amended). ACT: NHMRC (Australia).








































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