Tables for
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 2.5, pp. 86-87

Section Applications

B. Burase and L. Gerwardb Applications

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The unique features of energy-dispersive diffraction make it a complement to rather than a substitute for monochromatic angle-dispersive diffraction. Both techniques yield quantitative structural information, although XED is seldom used for a full structure determination. Because of the fixed geometry, energy-dispersive methods are particularly suited to in situ studies of samples in special environments, e.g. at high or low temperature and/or high pressure. The study of anomalous scattering and forbidden reflections is facilitated by the possibility of shifting the diffraction peaks on the energy scale by changing the scattering angle. Other applications are studies of Debye–Waller factors, determinative mineralogy, attenuation-coefficient measurements, on-stream measurements, particle-size and -strain determination, and texture studies. These and other applications can be found in an annotated bibliography covering the period 1968–1978 (Laine & Lähteenmäki, 1980[link]). The short counting time and the simultaneous recording of the diffraction spectrum permit the study of the kinetics of structural transformations in time frames of a few seconds or minutes.

Energy-dispersive powder diffraction has proved to be of great value for high-pressure structural studies in conjunction with synchrotron radiation. The brightness of the radiation source and the efficiency of the detector system permit the recording of a diffraction spectrum with satisfactory counting statistics in a reasonable time (100–1000 s) in spite of the extremely small sample volume (10−3–10−5 mm3). Reviews have been given by Buras & Gerward (1989[link]) and Häusermann (1992[link]). Recently, XED experiments have been performed at pressures above 400 GPa, and pressures near 1 TPa may be attainable in the near future (Ruoff, 1992[link]). At this point, it should be mentioned that XED methods have limited resolution and generally give unreliable peak intensities. The situation has been transformed recently by the introduction of the image-plate area detector, which allows angle-dispersive, monochromatic methods to be used with greatly improved resolution and powder averaging (Nelmes & McMahon, 1994[link], and references therein).


Buras, B. & Gerward, L. (1989). Application of X-ray energy-dispersive diffraction for characterization of materials under high pressure. Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 18, 93–138.
Häusermann, D. (1992). New techniques for new sources: a fresh look at energy-dispersive diffraction for high-pressure studies. High Press. Res. 8, 647–654.
Laine, E. & Lähteenmäki, I. (1980). The energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction method: annotated bibliography 1968–78. J. Mater. Sci. 15, 269–278, and references therein.
Nelmes, R. J. & McMahon, M. I. (1994). High-pressure powder diffraction on synchrotron sources. J. Synchrotron Rad. 1, 69–73.
Ruoff, A. L. (1992). EDXD studies above 400 GPa (and prospects for obtaining pressures near 1 TPa and doing EDXD studies at such pressures). High Press. Res. 8, 639–645.

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