Tables for
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 3.5, p. 176

Section Cast films

N. J. Tighe,a J. R. Fryerb and H. M. Flowerc

a42 Lema Lane, Palm Coast, FL 32137-2417, USA,bDepartment of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland, and cDepartment of Metallurgy, Imperial College, London SW7, England Cast films

| top | pdf |

Thin films of polymeric compounds can be obtained by casting solutions of the polymer in a volatile, non-polar solvent onto a water surface and collecting a specimen by bringing a carbon-coated grid up though the film (Porat, Fryer, Huxham & Rubinstein, 1995[link]). This technique is used for specimens of Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer films (Fryer, McConnell, Hann, Eyre & Gupta, 1990[link]; Fryer et al., 1991[link]). The crystallinity of the film is often poor with this method of preparation; better crystals can be obtained by crystallizing the polymer from solution directly onto a carbon film. For many polymers, an ordered array is obtained when crystallization is performed on a cleaved alkali halide single-crystal surface. The monomer can be cast onto the crystalline substrate and polymerization performed thermally or by UV irradiation. After crystallization, the polymeric specimen is coated with carbon and floated off on a water surface. Specimens from bulk polymeric materials can be prepared also by microtome sectioning (see Subsection[link]).


Fryer, J. R., McConnell, C. H., Grant, G. A., Hann, R. A., Eyres, B. L. & Gupta, S. K. (1991). The structure of some Langmuir–Blodgett films. II. Aromatic polar molecules. Philos. Mag. B63, 1193–1200.
Fryer, J. R., McConnell, C. H., Hann, R. A., Eyres, B. L. & Gupta, S. K. (1990). The structure of some Langmuir–Blodgett films. I. Substituted phthalocyanines. Philos. Mag. B61, 843–852.
Porat, Z., Fryer, J. R., Huxham, M. & Rubinstein, I. (1995). Electron microscope investigation of the microstructure of Nafion films. J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4667–4671.

to end of page
to top of page