Tables for
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 4.2, pp. 199-200

Section Other sources of X-rays

U. W. Arndta Other sources of X-rays

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Parametric X-ray generation can be described as the diffraction of virtual photons associated with the field of a relativistic charged particle passing through a crystal. These diffracted photons appear as real photons with an energy that satisfies Bragg's law for the reflecting crystal planes, so that the energy can be tuned between 5 and 45 keV by rotating the mosaic graphite crystal. Linear accelerators with an energy between 100 and 500 MeV produce the incident relativistic electron beam (Maruyama, Di Nova, Snyder, Piestrup, Li, Fiorito & Rule, 1993[link]; Fiorito, Rule, Piestrup, Li, Ho & Maruyama, 1993[link]).

Transition-radiation X-rays with peak energies between 10 and 30 keV are produced when electrons from 100 to 400 MeV strike a stack of thin foils (Piestrup, Moran, Boyers, Pincus, Kephart, Gearhart & Maruyama, 1991[link]). Quasi-monochromatic X-rays result from a selection of target foils with appropriate K-, L- or M-edge frequencies (Piestrup, Boyers, Pincus, Harris, Maruyama, Bergstrom, Caplan, Silzer & Skopik, 1991[link]).

Channelling radiation, resulting from the incidence of electrons with an energy of only about 5 MeV on appropriately aligned diamond or silicon crystals hold out the hope of producing a bright tunable X-ray source.

One or more of these methods may, in the future, be developed as X-ray sources that can compete with synchrotron-radiation sources.


Fiorito, R. B., Rule, D. W., Piestrup, M. A., Li, Q., Ho, A. H. & Maruyama, X. K. (1993). Parametric X-ray generation from moderate-energy electron beams. Nucl. Instrum. Methods, B79, 758–761.Google Scholar
Maruyama, X. K., Di Nova, K., Snyder, D., Piestrup, M. A., Li, Q., Fiorito, R. B. & Rule, D. W. (1993). A compact tunable X-ray source based on parametric X-ray generation by moderate-energy linacs. Proc. 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference. IEEE, 2, 1620–1622.Google Scholar
Piestrup, M. A., Boyers, D. G., Pincus, C. I., Harris, J. L., Maruyama, X. K., Bergstrom, J. C., Caplan, H. S., Silzer, R. M. & Skopik, D. M. (1991). Quasimonochromatic X-ray source using photoabsorption-edge transition radiation. Phys. Rev. A, 43, 3653–3661.Google Scholar
Piestrup, M. A., Moran, M. J., Boyers, D. G., Pincus, C. I., Kephart, J. O., Gearhart, R. A. & Maruyama, X. K. (1991). Generation of hard X-rays from transition radiation using high-density foils and moderate-energy electrons. Phys. Rev. A, 43, 2387–2396.Google Scholar

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