International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 5.3, pp. 505-536
https://doi.org/10.1107/97809553602060000597

Chapter 5.3. X-ray diffraction methods: single crystal

E. Gałdeckaa

aInstitute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 937, 50-950 Wrocław 2, Poland

References

Abrahams, S. C., Liminga, R., Marsh, P., Schrey, F., Albertsson, J., Svensson, C. & Kvick, Å. (1983). Thermal expansivity of α-LiIO3 between 20 and 520 K. J. Appl. Cryst. 16, 453–457.
Alcock, N. W. & Sheldrick, G. M. (1967). The determination of accurate unit-cell dimensions from inclined Weissenberg photographs. Acta Cryst. 23, 35–38.
Alexander, L. (1948). Geometrical factors affecting the contours of X-ray spectrometer maxima. I. Factors causing asymmetry. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 1068–1071.
Alexander, L. (1950). Geometrical factors affecting the contours of X-ray spectrometer maxima. II. Factors causing broadening. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 126–136.
Alexander, L. (1954). The synthesis of X-ray spectrometer line profiles with application to crystallite size measurements. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 155–161.
Alexander, L. E. & Smith, G. (1962). Single-crystal intensity measurements with the three-circle counter diffractometer. Acta Cryst. 15, 983–1004.
Amorós, J. L., Buerger, M. J. & Amorós, M. C. (1975). The Laue method. New York: Academic Press.
d'Amour, H., Denner, W., Schulz, H. & Cardona, M. (1982). A uniaxial stress apparatus for single-crystal X-ray diffraction on a four-circle diffractometer: Application to silicon and diamond. J. Appl. Cryst. 15, 148–153.
Ando, M., Bailey, D. & Hart, M. (1978). A simple Bragg-spacing comparator. Acta Cryst. A34, 484–489.
Ando, M., Hagashi, Y., Usuda, K., Yasuami, S. & Kawata, H. (1989). A precision Bond method with SR. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2410–2413.
Aristov, V. V., Shekhtman, V. Sh. & Shmytko, I. M. (1973). Precision measurement of crystallographic parameters by the X-ray divergent-beam technique. (In Russian.) Kristallografiya, 18, 706–709. (English transl: Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 18, 445–446.)
Aristov, V. V. & Shmytko, I. M. (1978). Precision lattice parameter measurement by the X-ray divergent-beam technique. J. Appl. Cryst. 11, 662–668.
Aristov, V. V., Shmytko, I. M. & Shulakov, E. V. (1974a). Application of the X-ray divergent-beam technique for the determination of the angles between crystal blocks. I. Reflexion from the planes parallel to the crystal surface. J. Appl. Cryst. 7, 409–413.
Aristov, V. V., Shmytko, I. M. & Shulakov, E. V. (1974b). Application of the X-ray divergent-beam technique for the determination of the angles between crystal blocks. II. Determination of the total misorientation angle between blocks. J. Appl. Cryst. 7, 413–416.
Arndt, U. W. & Willis, B. T. M. (1966). Single crystal diffractometry. Cambridge University Press.
Åsbrink, S., Wołcyrz, M. & Hong, S.-H. (1985a). X-ray Bond-type diffractometric investigations on V3O5 in the temperature interval 298 to 480 K including the phase transition temperature Tt = 428 K. Phys. Status Solidi A, 87, 135–140.
Åsbrink, S., Wołcyrz, M. & Hong, S.-H. (1985b). X-ray Bond-type diffractometric investigations on V3O5 in the temperature interval 298 to 480 K including the phase transition temperature Tt = 428 K. Erratum. Phys. Status Solidi A, 89, 415.
Azároff, L. V. (1974). X-ray spectroscopy, Chap. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bačkovský, J. (1965). On the most accurate measurements of the wavelengths of X-ray spectral lines. Czech. J. Phys. B15, 752–759.
Baker, J. A., Tucker, T. N., Moyer, N. E. & Buschert, R. C. (1968). Effects of carbon on the lattice parameter of silicon. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4365–4368.
Baker, J. F. C. & Hart, M. (1975). An absolute measurement of the lattice parameter of germanium using multiple-beam X-ray diffractometry. Acta Cryst. A31, 364–367.
Baker, J. F. C., Hart, M., Halliwell, M. A. G. & Heckingbottom, R. (1976). Precise lattice parameter determination of dislocation-free gallium arsenide. I. X-ray measurements. Solid-State Electron. 19, 331–334.
Baker, T. W., George, J. D., Bellamy, B. A. & Causer, R. (1966). Very high precision X-ray diffraction. Nature (London), 210, 720–721.
Baker, T. W., George, J. D., Bellamy, B. A. & Causer, R. (1968). Fully automated high-precision X-ray diffraction. Adv. X-ray Anal. 11, 359–375.
Barla, K., Herino, R., Bomchil, G. & Pfister, J. C. (1984). Determination of lattice parameter and elastic properties of porous silicon by X-ray diffraction. J. Cryst. Growth, 68, 727–732.
Barns, R. L. (1972). A strategy for rapid and accurate (p.p.m.) measurement of lattice parameters of single crystals by Bond's method. Adv. X-ray Anal. 15, 330–338.
Bartels, W. J. (1983). Characterization of thin layers on perfect crystals with a multipurpose high-resolution X-ray diffractometer. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B1, 338–345.
Batchelder, D. N. & Simmons, R. O. (1965). X-ray lattice constant of crystals by a rotating-camera method: Al, Ar, Au, CaF2, Cu, Ge, Ne, Si. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2864–2868.
Bearden, J. A. (1933). The wavelengths of the silver, molybdenum, copper, iron and chromium Kα1 lines. Phys. Rev. 43, 92–97.
Bearden, J. A. (1965). Selection of W Kα1 as the X-ray wavelength standard. Phys. Rev. 137, BY55–BY61.
Bearden, J. A. (1967). X-ray wavelengths. Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 78–124.
Bearden, J. A. & Henins, A. (1965). Precision measurement of lattice imperfections with a photographic two-crystal method. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 334–338.
Bearden, J. A., Marzolf, J. G. & Thomsen, J. S. (1968). Crystal diffraction profiles for monochromatic radiation. Acta Cryst. A24, 295–301.
Bearden, J. A. & Thomsen, J. S. (1971). The double-crystal X-ray spectrometer: corrections, errors, and alignment procedure. J. Appl. Cryst. 4, 130–138.
Becker, P., Dorenwendt, K., Ebeling, G., Lauer, R., Lucas, W., Probst, R., Rademacher, H.-J., Reim, G., Seyfried, P. & Siegert, H. (1981). Absolute measurement of the (220) lattice plane spacing in silicon crystal. Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1540–1543.
Becker, P., Seyfried, P. & Siegert, H. (1982). The lattice parameter of highly pure silicon single crystals. Z. Phys. B, 48, 17–21.
Berg, H. M. & Hall, E. L. (1975). The pseudo-Kossel technique in back reflection as a tool for measuring strains. Adv. X-ray Anal. 18, 454–465.
Berger, H. (1984). A method for precision lattice-parameter measurement of single crystals. J. Appl. Cryst. 17, 451–455.
Berger, H. (1986a). Systematic errors in precision lattice parameter determination of single crystals caused by asymmetric line profiles. J. Appl. Cryst. 19, 34–38.
Berger, H. (1986b). Study of the Kα emission spectrum of copper. X-ray Spectrom. 15, 241–243.
Berger, H. (1993). X-ray diffraction studies on point defects in II–VI compounds. Cryst. Res. Technol. 28, 795–801.
Berger, H., Lehmann, A. & Schenk, M. (1985). Lattice parameter variations in PbTe single crystals. Cryst. Res. Technol. 20, 579–581.
Berger, H., Rosner, B. & Schikora, D. (1989). Lattice parameter determination of superlattices. Cryst. Res. Technol. 24, 437–441.
Beu, K. E. (1967). The precise and accurate determination of lattice parameters. Handbook of X-rays, edited by E. F. Kaelble, Chap. 10. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Beu, K. E., Musil, F. J. & Whitney, D. R. (1962). Precise and accurate lattice parameters by film powder methods. I. The likelihood ratio method. Acta Cryst. 15, 1292–1301.
Bevis, M., Fearon, E. O. & Rowlands, P. C. (1970). The accurate determination of lattice parameters and crystal orientations from Kossel patterns. Phys. Status Solidi A, 1, 653–659.
Biggin, S. & Dingley, D. J. (1977). A general method for locating the X-ray source point in Kossel diffraction. J. Appl. Cryst. 10, 376–385.
Bolotina, N. B. (1989). Refinement of unit-cell parameters and orientation of specimen in diffractometer, taking account of symmetry of single crystal. Kristallografiya, 34, 598–601. (English transl: Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 34, 355–357.)
Bond, W. L. (1960). Precision lattice constant determination. Acta Cryst. 13, 814–818.
Bond, W. L. (1975). Precision lattice constant determination. Erratum. Acta Cryst. A31, 698.
Bonse, U. & te Kaat, E. (1968). A two-crystal X-ray interferometer. Z. Phys. 214, 16–21.
Bowen, D. K. & Tanner, B. K. (1995). A method for the accurate comparison of lattice parameters. J. Appl. Cryst. 28, 753–760.
Bragg, W. H. & Bragg, W. L. (1915). X-rays and crystal structure, Chap. 2. London: G. Bell and Sons.
Brown, B. R., Halliwell, M. A. G. & Isherwood, B. J. (1980). The characterization of distortions in heteroepitaxial structures by X-ray multiple diffraction. J. Microsc. 118, 375–381.
Brühl, H.-G. (1978). Precision lattice parameter measurements of VPE-GaP-epitaxial layers by the `Umweganregung' method. Krist. Tech. 13, 1247–1251.
Brühl, H.-G. & Rhan, H. (1985). On the extension of the theory of Umweganregung with respect to the use of divergent white X-ray radiation. Phys. Status Solidi A, 87, 121–126.
Buerger, M. J. (1942). X-ray crystallography. London: John Wiley.
Buras, B., Olsen, J. S., Gerward, L., Will, G. & Hinze, E. (1977). X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometry using synchrotron radiation. J. Appl. Cryst. 10, 431–438.
Burke, J. & Tomkeieff, M. V. (1968). Specimen and beam tilt errors in Bond's method of lattice parameter determination. Acta Cryst. A24, 683–685.
Burke, J. & Tomkeieff, M. V. (1969). Errors in the Bond method of lattice parameter determinations. Further considerations. J. Appl. Cryst. 2, 247–248.
Buschert, R. C. (1965). X-ray lattice parameter and linewidth studies in silicon. Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 125.
Buschert, R. C., Merlini, A. E., Pace, S., Rodriguez, S. & Grimsditch, M. H. (1988). Effect of isotope concentration on the lattice parameter of germanium perfect crystals. Phys. Rev. B, 38, 5219–5221.
Buschert, R. C., Meyer, A. J., Stuckey Kauffman, D. & Gotwals, J. K. (1983). A double-source double-crystal X-ray spectrometer for high-sensitivity lattice-parameter difference measurements. J. Appl. Cryst. 16, 599–605.
Buschert, R. C., Pace, S., Inzaghi, D. & Merlini, A. E. (1980). A high-sensitivity double-beam triple-crystal spectrometer for lattice parameter and topographic measurements. J. Appl. Cryst. 13, 207–210.
Busing, W. R. & Levy, H. A. (1967). Angle calculations for 3- and 4-circle X-ray and neutron diffractometers. Acta Cryst. 22, 457–464.
Carr, P. D., Cruickshank, D. W. J. & Harding, M. M. (1992). The determination of unit-cell parameters from Laue diffraction patterns using their gnomonic projections. J. Appl. Cryst. 25, 294–308.
Cembali, F., Fabri, R., Servidori, M., Zani, A., Basile, G., Cavagnero, G., Bergamin, A. & Zosi, G. (1992). Precise X-ray relative measurement of lattice parameters of silicon wafers by multiple-crystal Bragg-case diffractometry. Computer simulation of the experiment. J. Appl. Cryst. 25, 424–431.
Černohorský, M. (1960). The ratio method for absolute measurements of lattice parameters with cylindrical cameras. Acta Cryst. 13, 823–826.
Chang, S.-L. (1979). Direct observation of two-dimensional lattice mismatch parallel to the interfacial boundary between the LPE Ga0.65Al0.35As layer and the GaAs substrate. Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 239–240.
Chang, S.-L. (1984). Multiple diffraction of X-rays in crystals, Chap. 7.2 in particular. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Chang, S.-L., Patel, N. B., Nannichi, Y. & de Prince, F. C. (1979). Determination of lattice mismatch in Ga1−xAlxAs LPE layer on GaAs substrate by using a divergent X-ray source. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 2975–2976.
Clegg, W. (1981). Least-squares refinement of unit-cell parameters from precession photographs. Acta Cryst. A37, 437–438.
Clegg, W. (1984). Orientation matrix refinement during four-circle diffractometer data collection. Acta Cryst. A40, 703–704.
Clegg, W. & Sheldrick, G. M. (1984). The refinement of unit cell parameters from two-circle diffractometer measurements. Z. Kristallogr. 167, 23–27.
Cole, H., Chambers, F. W. & Dunn, H. M. (1962). Simultaneous diffraction: indexing Umweganregung peaks in simple cases. Acta Cryst. 15, 138–144.
Compton, A. H. & Allison, S. K. (1935). X-rays in theory and experiment. New York: Van Nostrand.
Cooper, A. S. (1962). Precise lattice constants of germanium, aluminium, gallium arsenide, uranium, sulphur, quartz and sapphire. Acta Cryst. 15, 578–582.
Cruickshank, D. W. J., Carr, P. D. & Harding, M. M. (1992). Estimation of dmin, λmin and λmax from the gnomonic projections of Laue patterns. J. Appl. Cryst. 25, 285–293.
Davis, B. L. & Johnson, L. R. (1984). The true unit cell of ammonium hydrogen sulfate, (NH4)3H(SO4)2. J. Appl. Cryst. 17, 331–333.
Deslattes, R. D. (1969). Optical and X-ray interferometry of a silicon lattice spacing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 386–388.
Deslattes, R. D. & Henins, A. (1973). X-ray to visible wavelength ratios. Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 972–975.
Deslattes, R. D., Henins, A., Bowman, H. A., Schoonover, R. M., Caroll, C. L., Barnes, I. L., Machlan, L. A., Moore, L. J. & Shields, W. R. (1974). Determination of the Avogadro constant. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 463–466.
Deslattes, R. D., Henins, A., Schoonover, R. M., Caroll, C. L. & Bowman, H. A. (1976). Avogadro constant – correction to an earlier report. Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 898–900.
Dressler, L., Griebner, U. & Kittner, R. (1987). Precision measurement of lattice parameters in LiF monocrystals. Cryst. Res. Technol. 22, 1431–1435.
Eastabrook, J. N. (1952). Effect of vertical divergence on the displacement and breadth of X-ray powder diffraction lines. Br. J. Appl. Phys. 3, 349–352.
Ellis, T., Nanni, L. F., Shrier, A., Weissmann, S., Padawer, G. E. & Hosokawa, N. (1964). Strain and precision lattice parameter measurements by the X-ray divergent beam method. I. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3364–3373.
Evans, H. T. Jr & Lonsdale, K. (1959). Diffraction geometry. International tables for X-ray crystallography, Vol. II, Chap. 4. Birmingham: Kynoch Press.
Farquhar, M. C. M. & Lipson, H. (1946). The accurate determination of cell dimensions from single-crystal X-ray photographs. Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 58, 200–206.
Fewster, P. F. (1982). Absolute lattice-parameter measurements of epitaxial layers. J. Appl. Cryst. 15, 275–278.
Fewster, P. F. (1989). A high-resolution multiple-crystal multiple-reflection diffractometer. J. Appl. Cryst. 22, 64–69.
Fewster, P. F. (1993). Structural characterisation of materials by combining X-ray diffraction space mapping and topography. Philips J. Res. 47, 235–245.
Fewster, P. F. & Andrew, N. L. (1995). Absolute lattice-parameter measurement. J. Appl. Cryst. 28, 451–458.
Fewster, P. F. & Willoughby, A. F. W. (1980). The effect of silicon doping on the lattice parameter of gallium arsenide grown by liquid-phase epitaxy, vapour-phase epitaxy and gradient-freeze techniques. J. Cryst. Growth, 50, 648–653.
Filscher, G. & Unangst, D. (1980). Bond-method for precision lattice constant determination. Dependence of lattice constant error on sample adjustment and collimator tilt. Krist. Tech. 15, 955–960.
Fischer, D. G. & Harris, N. (1970). A computer program for the calculation of lattice spacings from Kossel diffraction patterns. J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 305–313.
Fukahara, A. & Takano, Y. (1977). Determination of strain distributions from X-ray Bragg reflexion by silicon single crystals. Acta Cryst. A33, 137–142.
Fukumori, T. & Futagami, K. (1988). Measurements of lattice parameters and half-widths of the rocking curve on GaAs crystal by the X-ray double-crystal method using a Cu Kα doublet. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 442–443.
Fukumori, T., Futagami, K. & Matsunaga, K. (1982). X-ray double-crystal method for crystal lattice parameter measurements using Cu Kα doublet. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1525.
Fukumori, T., Imai, K., Hasegawa, T. & Akashi, Y. (1997). Precision lattice spacing measurement using X-ray Cu Kα doublet. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn, 66, 1976–1978.
Gabe, E. J. (1980). Diffractometer control with minicomputers. Computing in crystallography, edited by R. Diamond, S. Ramaseshan & K. Venkatesan, pp. 1.01–1.18. Bangalore: Indian Academy of Sciences.
Gałdecka, E. (1985). The variances and covariances of measured intensities in precise lattice-constant determination by the Bond method. Structure & statistics in crystallography, edited by A. J. C. Wilson, pp. 137–149. New York: Adenine Press.
Gałdecka, E. (1993a). Description and peak-position determination of a single X-ray diffraction profile for high-accuracy lattice-parameter measurements by the Bond method. I. An analysis of descriptions available. Acta Cryst. A49, 106–115.
Gałdecka, E. (1993b). Description and peak-position determination of a single X-ray diffraction profile for high-accuracy lattice-parameter measurements by the Bond method. II. Testing and choice of description. Acta Cryst. A49, 116–126.
Gałdecka, E. (1994). The extrapolated-peak method for the peak-position determination of an X-ray diffraction profile, and the accuracy of the Bragg-angle measurements. Sci. Bull. Tech. Univ. Łódź Branch Bielsko-Biała, 22(4), 1–24.
Gamarnik, M. Ya. (1990). Size changes of lattice parameters in ultradisperse diamond and silicon. Phys. Status Solidi B, 161, 457–462.
Geist, V. & Ascheron, C. (1984). The proton-induced Kossel effect and its application to crystallographic studies. Cryst. Res. Technol. 19, 1231–1244.
Gielen, P., Yakowitz, H., Ganow, D. & Ogilvie, R. E. (1965). Evaluation of Kossel microdiffraction procedures: the cubic case. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 773–782.
Glass, H. L. & Moudy, L. A. (1974). Measurement of the lattice parameter of gadolinium gallium garnet crystals by the X-ray divergent-beam anomalous-transmission method. J. Appl. Cryst. 7, 22–24.
Glass, H. L. & Weissmann, S. (1969). Synergy of line profile analysis and selected area topography by the X-ray divergent beam method. J. Appl. Cryst. 2, 200–209.
Glazer, A. M. (1972). A technique for the automatic recording of phase transitions in single crystals. J. Appl. Cryst. 5, 420–423.
Glazer, A. M. & Megaw, H. D. (1973). Studies of the lattice parameters and domains in the phase transitions of NaNbO3. Acta Cryst. A29, 489–495.
Godwod, K., Kowalczyk, R. & Szmid, Z. (1974). Application of a precise double X-ray spectrometer for accurate lattice parameter determination. Phys. Status Solidi A, 21, 227–234.
Golovin, A. L., Imamov, R. M. & Kondrashkina, E. A. (1985). Absolute measurements of lattice spacings in surface layers of crystals. Phys. Status Solidi A, 89, K5–K7.
Grosswig, S., Härtwig, J., Alter, U. & Christoph, A. (1983). Precision lattice parameter determination of coloured quartz monocrystals. Cryst. Res. Technol. 18, 501–511.
Grosswig, S., Härtwig, J., Jäckel, K.-H., Kittner, R. & Melle, W. (1986). A novel arrangement for the absolute measurement of geometric lattice parameters of monocrystals with high precision. Nauch. Apparat. Sci. Instrum. 1, 29–44.
Grosswig, S., Jäckel, K.-H. & Kittner, R. (1986). Peak position determination of X-ray diffraction profiles in precision lattice parameter measurements according to the Bond-method with help of the polynomial approximation. Cryst. Res. Technol. 21, 133–139.
Grosswig, S., Jäckel, K.-H., Kittner, R., Dietrich, B. & Schellenberger, U. (1985). Determination of the coplanar geometric lattice parameters of monocrystals with high precision. Cryst. Res. Technol. 20, 1093–1100.
Grosswig, S., Melle, W., Schellenberger, U. & Zahorowski, W. (1983). High precision lattice parameter determination of KDP with different crystal perfection. Cryst. Res. Technol. 18, K28–K30.
Gruber, E. E. & Black, R. E. (1970). Analysis of the axial misalignment error in precision lattice parameter measurement by the Bond technique. J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 354–357.
Halliwell, M. A. G. (1970). Measurement of specimen tilt and beam tilt in the Bond method. J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 418–419.
Hamilton, W. C. (1974). Angle settings for four-circle diffractometers. International tables for X-ray crystallography, Vol. IV, pp. 274–284. Birmingham: Kynoch Press.
Hanneman, R. E., Ogilvie, R. E. & Modrzejewski, A. (1962). Kossel line studies of irradiated nickel crystals. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1429–1435.
Harris, N. & Kirkham, A. J. (1971). A single-exposure method for the determination of lattice spacings and crystal orientation from Kossel diffraction patterns. J. Appl. Cryst. 4, 232–240.
Hart, M. (1969). High precision lattice parameter measurements by multiple Bragg reflexion diffractometry. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 309, 281–296.
Hart, M. (1981). Bragg angle measurement and mapping. J. Cryst. Growth, 55, 409–427.
Hart, M. & Lloyd, K. H. (1975). Measurement of strain and lattice parameter in epitaxic layers. J. Appl. Cryst. 8, 42–44.
Hart, M., Parrish, W., Bellotto, M. & Lim, G. S. (1988). The refractive-index correction in powder diffraction. Acta Cryst. A44, 193–197.
Härtwig, J., Bąk-Misiuk, J., Berger, H., Brühl, H.-G., Okada, Y., Grosswig, S., Wokulska, K. & Wolf, J. (1994). Comparison of lattice parameters obtained from an internal monocrystal standard. Phys. Status Solidi A, 142, 19–26.
Härtwig, J. & Grosswig, S. (1989). Measurement of X-ray diffraction angles of perfect monocrystals with high accuracy using a single crystal diffractometer. Phys. Status Solidi A, 115, 369–382.
Härtwig, J., Grosswig, S., Becker, P. & Windisch, D. (1991). Remeasurement of the Cu Kα1 emission X-ray wavelength in the metrical system (present stage). Phys. Status Solidi A, 125, 79–89.
Härtwig, J., Hölzer, G., Förster, E., Goetz, K., Wokulska, K. & Wolf, J. (1994). Remeasurement of characteristic X-ray emission lines and their application to line profile analysis and lattice parameter determination. Phys. Status Solidi A, 143, 23–34.
Härtwig, J., Hölzer, G., Wolf, J. & Förster, E. (1993). Remeasurement of the profile of the characteristic Cu Kα emission line with high precision and accuracy. J. Appl. Cryst. 26, 539–548.
Häusermann, D. & Hart, M. (1990). A fast high-accuracy lattice-parameter comparator. J. Appl. Cryst. 23, 63–69.
Hebert, H. (1978). A simple method for obtaining triclinic cell parameters from Weissenberg photographs from one crystal setting. Acta Cryst. A34, 946–949.
Heise, H. (1962). Precision determination of the lattice constant by the Kossel line technique. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 938–941.
Henry, N. F. M., Lipson, H. & Wooster, W. A. (1960). The interpretation of X-ray diffraction photographs. London: Macmillan.
Herbstein, F. H. (2000). How precise are measurements of unit-cell dimensions from single crystals? Acta Cryst. B56, 547–557.
Holý, V. & Härtwig, J. (1988). The role of diffuse scattering on microdefects in the precise lattice parameter measurement. Phys. Status Solidi B, 145, 363–372.
Hölzer, G., Fritsch, M., Deutsch, M., Härtwig, J. & Förster, E. (1997). 1,2 and Kβ1,3 X-ray emission lines of the 3d transition metals. Phys. Rev. A, 56, 4554–4568.
Hom, T., Kiszenick, W. & Post, B. (1975). Accurate lattice constants from multiple reflection measurements. II. Lattice constants of germanium, silicon and diamond. J. Appl. Cryst. 8, 457–458.
Horváth, J. (1983). Lattice-parameter measurements of PbHPO4 single crystals by the ratio method. J. Appl. Cryst. 16, 623–628.
Horváth, J. & Kucharczyk, D. (1981). Temperature dependence of lattice parameters of PbHPO4 and PbDPO4 single crystals. Phys. Status Solidi A, 63, 687–692.
Hubbard, C. R. & Mauer, F. A. (1976). Precision and accuracy of the Bond method as applied to small spherical crystals. J. Appl. Cryst. 9, 1–8.
Hubbard, C. R., Swanson, H. E. & Mauer, F. A. (1975). A silicon powder diffraction standard reference material. J. Appl. Cryst. 8, 45–48.
Hulme, R. (1966). Triclinic cell parameters from one crystal setting. Acta Cryst. 21, 898–900.
Imura, T. (1954). The study of deformation of single crystals by the divergent X-ray beams. Bull. Naniwa. Univ. Ser. A, 51.
Imura, T., Weissmann, S. & Slade, J. J. Jr (1962). A study of age-hardening of Al–3.85%Cu by the divergent X-ray beam method. Acta Cryst. 15, 786–793.
Irie, K., Koshiji, N. & Okazaki, A. (1989). High-angle double-crystal X-ray diffractometry (HADOX): combination with a sealed-tube X-ray source. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1504–1506.
Isherwood, B. J. (1968). An X-ray multiple diffraction study of yttrium iron garnet crystals. J. Appl. Cryst. 1, 299–307.
Isherwood, B. J., Brown, B. R. & Halliwell, M. A. G. (1981). X-ray multiple diffraction as a tool for studying heteroepitaxial layers. I. Coherent, on-axis layers. J. Cryst. Growth, 54, 449–460.
Isherwood, B. J., Brown, B. R. & Halliwell, M. A. G. (1982). X-ray multiple diffraction as a tool for studying heteroepitaxial layers. II. Coherent, off-axis layers. J. Cryst. Growth, 60, 33–42.
Isherwood, B. J. & Wallace, C. A. (1966). Measurement of the lattice parameter of silicon using a double-diffraction effect. Nature (London), 212, 173–175.
Isherwood, B. J. & Wallace, C. A. (1970). An X-ray multiple diffraction study of crystals of arsenic-doped germanium. J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 66–71.
Isherwood, B. J. & Wallace, C. A. (1971). The geometry of X-ray multiple diffraction in crystals. Acta Cryst. A27, 119–130.
James, R. W. (1967). The optical principles of the diffraction of X-rays. London: Bell.
Keller, H. L., Kucharczyk, D. & Küppers, H. (1982). The ferroelastic monoclinic low temperature modification of ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate. Z. Kristallogr. 158, 221–232.
Kheiker, D. M. (1973). Rentgenowskaya diffraktometriya monokristallow, Chaps. 3, 4, 5. Leningrad: Mashinostroyenie.
Kheiker, D. M. & Zevin, L. S. (1963). Rentgenowskaya diffraktometriya (X-ray diffractometry), Chap. 4. Moscow: Fizmatgiz.
Kirk, D. & Caulfield, P. B. (1977). Location of diffractometer profiles in X-ray stress analysis. Adv. X-ray Anal. 20, 283–289.
Kishino, S. (1973). Improved techniques of lattice parameter measurements using two X-ray beams. Adv. X-ray Anal. 16, 367–378.
Kobayashi, J., Mizutani, I. & Schmidt, H. (1970). X-ray study on the lattice strains of ferroelectric iron iodine boracite Fe3B7O13. Phys. Rev. B, 1, 3801–3808.
Kobayashi, J., Yamada, N. & Azumi, I. (1968). An X-ray method for accurate determination of lattice strain of crystals. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 39, 1647–1650.
Kobayashi, J., Yamada, N. & Nakamura, T. (1963). Origin of the visibility of the antiparallel 180° domains in barium titanate. Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 410–414.
Korytár, D. (1984). Lateral lattice parameter variation measurement by means of a double crystal X-ray method with oscillating slit. Czech. J. Phys. B34, 1277–1281.
Kossel, W. (1936). Messungen am vollständigen Reflexsystem eines Kristallgitters. Ann. Phys. (Leipzig), 26, 533–553.
Kovalchuk, M. V., Kovev, E. K. & Pinsker, Z. G. (1975). The X-ray triple-crystal spectrometer and precision determination of Δdhkl. (In Russian.) Kristallografiya, 20, 142–148.
Kshevetsky, S. A., Mikhailyuk, I. P., Ostapovich, M. V., Polyak, M. I., Remenyuk, P. I. & Fomin, V. G. (1979). Application of multiple diffraction to determination of lattice parameters. (In Russian.) Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 24, 1480–1485.
Kshevetsky, S. A., Mikhalchenko, V. P., Stetsko, Yu. P. & Shelud'ko, S. A. (1985). The lattice parameter refinement of single crystals by means of multiple-wave diffractometry. (In Russian.) Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 30, 1843–1848.
Kubena, J. & Holý, V. (1988). Precise relative X-ray measurement of the lattice parameter of silicon crystals with growth striations. J. Appl. Cryst. 21, 245–251.
Kucharczyk, D. & Niklewski, T. (1979). Accurate X-ray determination of the lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficients of VO2 near the transition temperature. J. Appl. Cryst. 12, 370–373.
Kucharczyk, D., Pietraszko, A. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1976). Temperature dependence of lattice parameters of NaNO2 single crystals. Phys. Status Solidi A, 37, 287–294.
Kucharczyk, D., Pietraszko, A. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1993). An automatic four-circle diffractometer designed for precise lattice-parameter determination. J. Appl. Cryst. 26, 467.
Kudo, S. (1982). X-ray determination of incommensurate superlattices in K2SeO4 and (NH4)2BeF4. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, 255–258.
Kurbatov, B. A., Zubenko, V. V. & Umansky, M. M. (1972). The use of the monochromator crystal with anomalous transmission of X-rays in precise lattice parameter measurements. (In Russian.) Kristallografiya, 17, 1058–1060.
Lang, A. R. & Pang, G. (1995). A possible new route to precise lattice-parameter measurement of perfect crystals using the divergent-X-ray-beam method. J. Appl. Cryst. 28, 61–64.
Larson, B. C. (1974). High-precision measurements of lattice parameter changes in neutron-irradiated copper. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 514–518.
Leszczyński, M., Podlasin, S. & Suski, T. (1993). A 109 Pa high-pressure cell for X-ray and optical measurements. J. Appl. Cryst. 26, 1–4.
Lider, V. V. & Rozhansky, V. N. (1967). A new X-ray method of precision lattice spacing determination by divergent-beam photograph. Fiz. Tverd. Tela (Leningrad), 9, 3539–3546.
Lisoivan, V. I. (1974). Local determination of all the lattice parameters of single crystals. (In Russian.) Appar. Methody Rentgenovskogo Anal. 14, 151–157.
Lisoivan, V. I. (1981). Experimental refinement of the angles between unit-cell axes. (In Russian.) Kristallografiya, 26, 458–463.
Lisoivan, V. I. (1982). Measurements of unit-cell parameters on one-crystal spectrometer. (In Russian.) Novosibirsk: Nauka.
Lisoivan, V. I. & Dikovskaya, R. R. (1969). Local precision determination of lattice constants of a single crystal. Prib. Tech. Eksp. No. 4, pp. 164–166; English transl: Instrum. Exp. Tech. (USSR), 4, 992–994.
Lonsdale, K. (1947). Divergent-beam X-ray photography of crystals. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 240, 219–250.
Luger, P. (1980). Modern X-ray analysis of single crystals. In particular, Chap. 4 and Section 4.2.2. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Łukaszewicz, K., Kucharczyk, D., Malinowski, M. & Pietraszko, A. (1978). New model of the Bond diffractometer for precise determination of lattice parameters and thermal expansion of single crystals. Krist. Tech. 13, 561–567.
Łukaszewicz, K., Pietraszko, A., Kucharczyk, D., Malinowski, M., Stępień-Damm, J. & Urbanowicz, E. (1976). Precyzyjne pomiary stałych sieciowych kryształów metoda Bonda (Precision measurements of lattice constants of crystals by the Bond method). Wrocław: Instytut Niskich Temperatur i Badań Strukturalnych PAN.
Lutts, A. (1973). The geometrical distortion of deficiency conic sections and its influence on lattice-parameter determinations. J. Appl. Cryst. 6, 428–437.
Lutts, A. & Gielen, P. (1971). The precise determination of the lattice parameter of α-iron and some of its alloys. J. Appl. Cryst. 4, 242–250.
Lutts, A. H. (1968). Determination of lattice parameters by the Kossel and divergent X-ray beam techniques. Adv. X-ray Anal. 11, 345–358.
Mackay, K. J. H. (1966). Proceedings of the IVth Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis, pp. 544–554. Paris: Hermann.
Main, P. & Woolfson, M. M. (1963). Accurate lattice parameters from Weissenberg photographs. Acta Cryst. 16, 731–733.
Mauer, F. A., Hubbard, C. R., Piermarini, G. J. & Block, S. (1975). Measurement of anisotropic compressibilities by a single crystal diffractometer method. Adv. X-ray Anal. 18, 437–453.
Mendelssohn, M. J. & Milledge, H. J. (1999). Divergent-beam technique used in a SEM to measure the cell parameters of isotopically distinct samples of LiF over the temperature range ~15–375 K. Acta Cryst. A55, 204–211.
Mohr, P. J. & Taylor, B. N. (2000). CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 351–495.
Morris, W. G. (1968). Crystal orientation and lattice parameters from Kossel lines. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1813–1823.
Nemiroff, M. (1982). Precise lattice-constant determinations using measured beam and crystal tilts. J. Appl. Cryst. 15, 375–377.
Newman, B. A. (1970). The equation of pseudo-Kossel curves. J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 191–193.
Newman, B. A. & Shrier, A. (1970). A new method of determining interplanar spacings with the back-reflection X-ray divergent beam technique. J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 280–281.
Newman, B. A. & Weissmann, S. (1968). Strain inhomogeneities in lightly compressed tungsten crystals. J. Appl. Cryst. 1, 139–145.
Obaidur, R. M. (2002). Energy-selective (+,+) monolithic monochromator and relative lattice-spacing measurement of Si wafers with synchrotron radiation. J. Synchrotron Rad. 9, 28–35.
Ohama, N., Sakashita, H. & Okazaki, A. (1979). Improvement of high-angle double-crystal X-ray diffractometry (HADOX) for measuring temperature dependence of lattice constants. II. Practice. J. Appl. Cryst. 12, 455–459.
Okada, Y. (1982). A high-temperature attachment for precise measurement of lattice parameters by Bond's method between room temperature and 1500 K. J. Phys. E, 15, 1060–1063.
Okazaki, A. & Kawaminami, M. (1973a). Accurate measurement of lattice constants in a wide range of temperature: use of white X-ray and double-crystal diffractometry. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 783–789.
Okazaki, A. & Kawaminami, M. (1973b). Lattice constant of strontium titanate at low temperatures. Mater. Res. Bull. 8, 545–550.
Okazaki, A. & Ohama, N. (1979). Improvement of high-angle double-crystal X-ray diffractometry (HADOX) for measuring temperature dependence of lattice constants. I. Theory. J. Appl. Cryst. 12, 450–454.
Okazaki, A. & Soejima, Y. (2001). Ultra-high-angle double-crystal X-ray diffractometry (U-HADOX) for determining a change in the lattice spacing: theory. Acta Cryst. A57, 708–712.
Parrish, W. (1960). Results of the IUCr precision lattice-parameter project. Acta Cryst. 13, 838–850.
Parrish, W. & Wilson, A. J. C. (1959). Precision measurements of lattice parameters of polycrystalline specimens. International tables for X-ray crystallography, Vol. II, Chap. 4.7, pp. 216–234. Birmingham: Kynoch Press.
Pick, M. A., Bickmann, K., Pofahl, E., Zwoll, K. & Wenzl, H. (1977). A new automatic triple-crystal X-ray diffractometer for the precision measurement of intensity distribution of Bragg diffraction and Huang scattering. J. Appl. Cryst. 10, 450–457.
Pierron, E. D. & McNeely, J. B. (1969). Precise cell parameters of semiconductor crystals and their applications. Adv. X-ray Anal. 12, 343–353.
Pietraszko, A., Tomaszewski, P. E. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1981). X-ray and optical study of the phase transition in LiCsSO4. Phase Transit. 2, 131–150.
Pietraszko, A., Waśkowska, A., Olejnik, S. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1979). X-ray study of the phase transition in RbHSeO4. Phase Transit. 1, 99–106.
Pihl, C. F., Bieber, R. L. & Schwuttke, G. H. (1973). Precision lattice parameter studies of ion-implanted silicon. Phys. Status Solidi A, 17, 359–369.
Polcarová, M. & Zůra, J. (1977). A method for the determination of lattice parameters on single crystals. Czech. J. Phys. B27, 322–331.
Popović, S. (1971). An X-ray diffraction method for lattice parameter measurements from corresponding Kα and Kβ reflexions. J. Appl. Cryst. 4, 240–241.
Popović, S. (1974). Determination of unit-cell parameters of single crystals from rotation patterns. J. Appl. Cryst. 7, 291–292.
Popović, S., Šljukić, M. & Hanic, F. (1974). Precise unit cell parameter and thermal expansion measurements of single crystals by X-ray diffraction. Phys. Status Solidi A, 23, 265–274.
Post, B. (1975). Accurate lattice constants from multiple diffraction measurements. I. Geometry, techniques and systematic errors. J. Appl. Cryst. 8, 452–456.
Potts, H. R. & Pearson, G. L. (1966). Annealing and arsenic over-pressure experiments on defects in gallium arsenide. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2098–2103.
Reeke, G. N. J. (1984). Eigenvalue filtering in the refinement of crystal and orientation parameters for oscillation photography. J. Appl. Cryst. 17, 238–243.
Reichard, T. E. (1969). A high-precision Kossel camera for research and routine analytical use. Adv. X-ray Anal. 12, 188–207.
Renninger, M. (1937). `Umweganregung', eine bisher unbeachtete Wechselwirkungserscheinung bei Raumgitterinterferezen. Z. Phys. 106, 141–176.
Ridou, C., Rousseau, M. & Freund, A. (1977). Détermination précise des paramètres cristallins au voisinage de changement de phase cubique quadratique dans RbCaF3. J. Phys. (Paris), 38, L-359–L-363.
Rossmanith, E. (1985). UMWEG – a computer program for calculation and graphical representation of Umweganregung patterns. Z. Kristallogr. 171, 253–254.
Rossmann, M. G. (1979). Processing oscillation diffraction data for very large unit cells with an automatic convolution technique and profile fitting. J. Appl. Cryst. 12, 225–238.
Rozhansky, V. H., Lider, V. V. & Lyutzau, V. G. (1966). An X-ray method for surface topography of crystal structure defects based on Kossel-line scanning. (In Russian.) Kristallografiya, 11, 701–703.
Sasvári, J. & Zsoldos, É. (1980). Accurate lattice parameter measurements of epitaxial layers. Invited paper at International Symposium on Industrial Applications of X-ray Spectrometry and Diffractometry, Turawa, Poland, 15–18 April 1980.
Schetelich, Ch. & Geist, V. (1993). Observation of X-ray Kossel patterns (`Gitterquelleninterferenzen') from quasicrystals. Phys. Status Solidi A, 136, 283–289.
Schneider, J. & Weik, H. (1968). Z. Angew. Phys. 2, 75–79.
Schwartzenberger, D. R. (1959). Philos. Mag. 4, 1242–1246.
Schwarzenbach, D., Abrahams, S. C., Flack, H. D., Gonschorek, W., Hahn, Th., Huml, K., Marsh, R. E., Prince, E., Robertson, B. E., Rollett, J. S. & Wilson, A. J. C. (1989). Statistical descriptors in crystallography. Report of the International Union of Crystallography Subcommittee on Statistical Descriptors. Acta Cryst. A45, 63–75.
Segmüller, A. (1970). Automated lattice parameter determination on single crystals. Adv. X-ray Anal. 13, 455–467.
Shinoda, G., Isokawa, K. & Umeno, M. (1969). Kossel line microdiffraction study on precipitation of alpha from beta in copper zinc alloys. Adv. X-ray Anal. 12, 174–187.
Shrier, A., Kalman, Z. H. & Weissmann, S. (1966). US Government Research Report AD 631 179.
Shvyd'ko, Yu. V., Lerche, M., Jäschke, J., Lucht, M., Gerdau, E., Gerken, M., Rüter, H. D., Wille, H.-C., Becker, P., Alp, E. E., Sturhahn, W., Sutter, J. & Toellner, T. S. (2000). γ-ray wavelength standard for atomic scales. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 495–498.
Shvyd'ko, Yu. V., Lucht, M., Gerdau, E., Lerche, M., Alp, E. E., Sturhahn, W., Sutter, J. & Toellner, T. S. (2002). Measuring wavelengths and lattice constants with the Mössbauer wavelength standard. J. Synchrotron Rad. 9, 17–23.
Siegert, H., Becker, P. & Seyfried, P. (1984). Determination of silicon unit-cell parameters by precision measurements of Bragg plane spacings. Z. Phys. B, 56, 273–278.
Singh, K. & Trigunayat, G. C. (1988). Accurate determination of lattice parameters from XRD oscillation photographs. J. Appl. Cryst. 21, 991.
Skupov, V. D. & Uspeckaya, G. I. (1975). The combined X-ray spectrometer for deformation measurements in single crystals. (In Russian.) Prib. Tekh. Eksp. No. 2, pp. 210–213.
Slade, J. J., Weissmann, S., Nakajima, K. & Hirabayshi, M. (1964). Stress–strain analysis of single cubic crystals and its application to the ordering of CuAu I. Paper II. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3373–3385.
Smakula, A. & Kalnajs, J. (1955). Precision determination of lattice constants with a Geiger-counter X-ray diffractometer. Phys. Rev. 99, 1737–1743.
Soares, D. A. W. & Pimentel, C. A. (1983). Precision interplanar spacing measurements on boron-doped silicon. J. Appl. Cryst. 16, 486–492.
Soejima, Y., Tomonaga, N., Onitsuka, H. & Okazaki, A. (1991). Two-dimensional intensity distribution in high-angle double-crystal X-ray diffractometry (HADOX). Z. Kristallogr. 195, 161–168.
Spooner, F. J. & Wilson, C. G. (1973). The measurement of single-crystal lattice parameters using a double-diffraction technique. J. Appl. Cryst. 6, 132–135.
Stępień, J. A., Auleytner, J. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1972). X-ray examination of the real structure of γ-irradiated NaClO3 single crystals. Phys. Status Solidi A, 10, 631–638.
Stępień-Damm, J. A., Kucharczyk, D., Urbanowicz, E. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1975). Effect of γ-irradiation on the thermal expansion of sodium chlorate NaClO3. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim. Geol. Geogr. 23, 985–988.
Stępień-Damm, J. A., Suski, T., Meysner, L., Hilczer, B. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1974). Effect of X-ray irradiation on the lattice constant of TGS crystal in the vicinity of phase transition. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci. Ser. Sci. Chim. Geol. Geogr. 22, 685–688.
Stout, G. H. & Jensen, L. H. (1968). X-ray structure determination. London: Macmillan.
Straumanis, M. E., Borgeaud, P. & James, W. J. (1961). Perfection of the lattice of dislocation-free silicon, studied by the lattice-constant and density method. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1382–1384.
Straumanis, M. & Ieviņš, A. (1940). Die Präzizionsbestimmung von Gitterkonstanten nach der asymmetrischen Methode. Berlin: Springer. [Reprinted by Edwards Brothers Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan (1948).]
Takano, Y. & Maki, M. (1972). X-ray measurement of lattice strain of oxygen diffused silicon. Acta Cryst. A28, S171.
Terminasov, Yu. S. & Tuzov, L. V. (1964). The double-diffraction of X-rays in crystals. (In Russian.) Usp. Phys. Nauk, 83, 223–258. (English transl: Sov. Phys. Usp. 7, 734.)
Thomsen, J. S. (1974). High-precision X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray spectroscopy, edited by L. V. Azároff, pp. 26–132. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Thomsen, J. S. & Yap, Y. (1968). Effect of statistical counting errors on wavelengths criteria for X-ray spectra. J. Res. Natl Bur. Stand. Sect. A, 72, 187–205.
Tixier, R. & Waché, C. (1970). Kossel patterns. J. Appl. Cryst. 3, 466–485.
Ullrich, H.-J. (1967). Precision lattice parameter measurements by interferences from lattice sources (Kossel lines) and divergent beam X-ray diffraction (pseudo-Kossel-lines) in back reflection. Phys. Status Solidi, 20, K113–K117.
Ullrich, H.-J. & Schulze, G. E. R. (1972). Röntgenographische Mikrobeugungsuntersuchungen an kristallinen Festkörpern mittels Gitterquelleninterferenzen (Kossel-Linien) und Weitwinkelinterferenzen (Pseudo-Kossel-Linien). Krist. Tech. 7, 207–220.
Umansky, M. M. (1960). Apparatura rentgenostrukturnykh issledovanij. Moscow: Fizmatgiz.
Urbanowicz, E. (1981a). The influence of in-plane collimation on the precision and accuracy of lattice-constant determination by the Bond method. I. A mathematical model. Statistical errors. Acta Cryst. A37, 364–368.
Urbanowicz, E. (1981b). The influence of in-plane collimation on the precision and accuracy of lattice-constant determination by the Bond method. II. Verification of the mathematical model. Systematic errors. Acta Cryst. A37, 369–373.
Walder, V. & Burke, J. (1971). The elimination of specimen and beam tilt errors in the Bond method of precision lattice parameter determinations. J. Appl. Cryst. 4, 337–339.
Weisz, O., Cochran, W. & Cole, W. F. (1948). The accurate determination of cell dimensions from single-crystal X-ray photographs. Acta Cryst. 1, 83–88.
Wilson, A. J. C. (1950). Geiger-counter X-ray spectrometer – influence of size and absorption coefficient of specimen on position and shape of powder diffraction maxima. J. Sci. Instrum. 27, 321–325.
Wilson, A. J. C. (1963). Mathematical theory of X-ray powder diffractometry. Philips Technical Library. Eindhoven: Centrex Publishing Company.
Wilson, A. J. C. (1965). The location of peaks. Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 665–674.
Wilson, A. J. C. (1967). Statistical variance of line-profile parameters. Measures of intensity, location and dispersion. Acta Cryst. 23, 888–898.
Wilson, A. J. C. (1968). Statistical variance of line-profile parameters. Measures of intensity, location and dispersion: Corrigenda. Acta Cryst. A24, 478.
Wilson, A. J. C. (1969). Statistical variance of line-profile parameters. Measures of intensity, location and dispersion: Addendum. Acta Cryst. A25, 584–585.
Wilson, A. J. C. (1980). Accuracy in methods of lattice-parameter measurement. Natl Bur. Stand. (US) Spec. Publ. No. 567. Proceedings of Symposium on Accuracy in Powder Diffraction, NBS, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 11–15 June 1979.
Windisch, D. & Becker, P. (1990). Silicon lattice parameters as an absolute scale of length for high precision measurements of fundamental constants. Phys. Status Solidi A, 118, 379–388.
Wołcyrz, M. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1982). The evaluation of crystal perfection by means of the asymmetric Bragg reflections. J. Appl. Cryst. 15, 406–411.
Wołcyrz, M., Pietraszko, A. & Łukaszewicz, K. (1980). The application of asymmetric Bragg reflections in the Bond method of measuring lattice parameters. J. Appl. Cryst. 13, 12–16.
Wölfel, E. R. (1971). A new film instrument for the exploration of reciprocal space. J. Appl. Cryst. 4, 297–302.
Woolfson, M. M. (1970). An introduction to X-ray crystallography. Cambridge University Press.
Yakowitz, H. (1966a). Effect of sample thickness and operating voltage on the contrast of Kossel transmission photographs. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4455–4458.
Yakowitz, H. (1966b). Precision of cubic lattice parameter measurement by the Kossel technique. The electron microprobe, edited by T. D. McKinley, K. F. J. Heinrich & D. B. Wittry, pp. 417–438. New York: John Wiley.
Yakowitz, H. (1969). The divergent beam X-ray technique. Advances in electronics and electron physics, edited by A. J. Tousimis & L. Marton, Suppl. 6, pp. 361–431. New York: Academic Press.
Yakowitz, H. (1972). Use of divergent-beam X-ray diffraction to measure lattice expansion in LiF as a function of thermal-neutron dose up to 6 ×1016 nvt. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4793–4794.
Zolotoyabko, E., Sander, B., Komem, Y. & Kantor, B. (1993). Improved strain analysis in semiconductor crystals by X-ray diffractometry enhanced with ultrasound. Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1540–1542.