Tables for
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, p. 630

Section Electron-sensitive PSD's

U. W. Arndtb Electron-sensitive PSD's

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In image intensifiers, an output image is produced on a phosphor screen by electrons with an energy of a few keV. A promising device with direct positional read out consists of a demagnifying intensifier in which the phosphor is replaced by a CCD. Various intensifiers have been described in which the electrons reaching the CCD have an energy of several keV so that the electron–hole generation is amplified (EBS process) (Lowrance, Zucchino, Renda & Long, 1979[link]; Lemonnier, Richard, Piaget, Petit & Vittot, 1985[link]). High-energy electrons are liable to cause radiation damage and similar precautions as for X-rays, such as thinning and back-illumination, are necessary. Experiments have been reported with less-damaging low-energy (200 eV) electrons produced in a microchannel plate (MCP) image intensifier (Dereniak, Roehrig, Salcido, Pommerrenig, Simms & Abrahams, 1985[link]). Both approaches look promising but it is questionable whether a device with an X-ray phosphor input and of adequate size and resolution at an affordable price will emerge in the near future.


Dereniak, E. L., Roehrig, H., Salcido, M. M., Pommerrenig, D. H., Simms, R. A. & Abrahams, J. M. (1985). Image intensifiers with electrical readout. IEE Conf. Publ. (London), 253, 71–73.
Lemonnier, M., Richard, J. C., Piaget, C., Petit, M. & Vittot, M. (1985). Photon-in and electron-in CCD arrays for image read-out in tubes. IEE Conf. Publ. (London), 253, 74–76.
Lowrance, J. L., Zucchino, P., Renda, G. & Long, D. C. (1979). ICCD development at Princeton. Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 52, 441–452.

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