Tables for
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, p. 631

Section X-ray phosphors

U. W. Arndtb X-ray phosphors

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The incoming X-rays are converted to light in a phosphor that is coupled to the first photocathode of the system. Both polycrystalline and monocrystalline phosphors are used for X-ray detection. The former give a higher light output but have a limited resolution; the latter tend to have a poorer light-conversion efficiency but have the best resolution. The most useful phosphors are shown in Table[link].

Many attempts have been made to improve the spatial resolution of phosphor screens by constructing them in the form of scintillating fibres that are optically isolated from one another so that the scintillation does not spread. This can be achieved by growing columnar scintillating crystals (Oba, Ito, Yamaguchi & Tanaka, 1988[link]), by intagliating polycrystalline phosphors (Fouassier, Duchenois, Dietz, Guillemet & Lemonnier, 1988[link]) and by using arrays of scintillating fibres (Bigler, Polack & Lowenthal, 1986[link]; Ikhlef & Skowronek, 1993[link], 1994[link]).

Image intensifiers designed for radiography with relatively hard radiation usually have an X-ray-transparent window – which may be up to 300 mm in diameter – and an internal phosphor–photocathode sandwich deposited on an X-ray-transparent substrate. Problems of compatibility of phosphor and photocathode have restricted the phosphor used, but CsI works well with multialkali photocathodes. Moy and his collaborators have constructed a large-diameter television detector in which the image intensifierhas been modified by using beryllium for the window and for the sandwich substrate; this intensifier is coupled to a slow-scan CCD camera (Moy, 1994[link]).


Bigler, E., Polack, F. & Lowenthal, S. (1986). Scintillating fibre array as an X-ray image detector. Proc. SPIE, 733, 133–137.
Fouassier, M., Duchenois, V., Dietz, J., Guillemet, E. & Lemonnier, M. (1988). Image intensifier tubes with intagliated screens. Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 74, 315–322.
Ikhlef, A. & Skowronek, M. (1993). Radiation position-sensitive detector based on plastic scintillating fibres. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2566–2569.
Ikhlef, A. & Skowronek, M. (1994). Some emission characteristics of scintillating fibres for low-energy X- and Y-rays. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-41, 408–414.
Moy, J.-P. (1994). A 200 mm input field 5–80  keV detector based on an X-ray image intensifier and CCD camera. Nucl. Instrum. Methods, A348, 641–644.
Oba, K., Ito, M., Yamaguchi, M. & Tanaka, M. (1988). A CsI(Na) scintillation plate with high spatial resolution. Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 74, 247–255.

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