International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume C
Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
Edited by E. Prince

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.3, p. 650

Section 7.3.5.3. Banks of detectors

P. Converta and P. Chieuxa

aInstitut Laue–Langevin, Avenue des Martyrs, BP 156X, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX, France

7.3.5.3. Banks of detectors

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When it is useful to have a large detection area without requiring spatial continuity of the detection, the solution is in the juxtaposition of several detectors. The selection of the type of detectors, the way of regrouping them, and the design of the collimation system depend on the measuring instrument. An appropriate geometry will optimize the signal-to-noise ratio and the instrumental resolution.

Banks of single detectors, up to 64 covering up to 160° in the diffraction plane with Soller collimators in front of each detector, are used for powder diffractometers in reactors [D1A and D2B, Institut Laue–Langevin (1988[link])]. The relative position of the detectors plus collimators and their response to the neutron intensity have to be measured and calibrated. The bank of detectors is scanned in small steps over the interval between two successive detectors in order to obtain a complete diagram over the angular range of the bank.

In a similar way, a juxtaposition of small PSDs with individual collimators is also used [D4, Institut Laue–Langevin (1988[link])].

In the case of spallation sources, the time-of-flight powder diffractometers are made of arrays of detectors at selected diffraction angles, to increase the detection area (Isis, 1992[link]). Whenever it is possible, the time focusing geometry is used (Windsor, 1981[link]). This implies a particular alignment of the detector array in order for it to become equivalent to one detector at one angle.

On the same instrument [HRPD, SANDALS, LAD (Isis, 1992[link])], various types of detector are used (3He gas single detectors of small diameter, Li glass or Li+ZnS scintillators). For each selected diffraction angle, the choice of detector depends on the required resolution, which is better for scintillators because of their small thickness, and on other properties of the detectors (background, stability, γ discrimination), which are better for 3He detectors.

References

Institut Laue–Langevin (1988). Guide to neutron research facilities at the ILL. Grenoble: Institut Laue–Langevin.
Isis (1992). User Guide. Didcot: Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
Windsor, C. G. (1981). Pulsed neutron scattering. London: Taylor and Francis.








































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