International
Tables for Crystallography Volume C Mathematical, physical and chemical tables Edited by E. Prince © International Union of Crystallography 2006 
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.4, pp. 660661

In typical Xray experiments, as is evident from Table 7.4.3.1, the energy transfer may be so low that Compton scattering will be inhibited from all but the most loosely bound electrons. Indeed, in the situation in metals where K, the momentum transfer, is less than k_{F} (the Fermi momentum), Compton scattering from the conduction electrons may be restricted by exclusion because of the lack of unoccupied final states [see Bushuev & Kuz'min (1977)]. Fortunately, in these uncertain circumstances, the incoherent intensities are low. In this regime, the electron gas may be excited into collective motion. For almost all solids, the plasmon excitation energy is 20–30 eV and, in the random phase approximation, the incoherent scattering factor becomes S(ΔE, K) ∝ (K^{2}/w_{p})δ(ΔE − hω_{p}), where ω_{p} is the plasma frequency.
At slightly higher energies , Compton scattering and Raman scattering can coexist, though the Raman component is only evident at low momentum transfer (Bushuev & Kuz'min, 1977). The resultant spectrum is often referred to as the Compton–Raman band. In semiclassical radiation theory, Raman scattering is usually differentiated from Compton scattering by dropping the requirement for momentum conservation between the photon and the individual target electron, the recoil being absorbed by the atom. The Raman band corresponds to transitions into the lowest unoccupied levels and these can be calculated within the dipole approximation as long as Ka , where K is the momentum transfer and a the orbital radius of the core electron undergoing the transition. The transition probability in equation (7.4.3.4) becomes which implies that the nearedge structure is similar to the photoelectric absorption spectrum.
Whereas plasmon and Raman scattering are unlikely to make dramatic contributions to the total incoherent intensity, resonant Raman scattering (RRS) may, when . The excitation involves a virtual Kshell vacancy in the intermediate state and a vacancy in the L (or M or N) shell and an electron in the continuum in the final state. It has now been observed in a variety of materials [see, for example, Sparks (1974), Eisenberger, Platzman & Winick (1976), Schaupp et al. (1984)]. It was predicted by Gavrila & Tugulea (1975) and the theory has been treated comprehensively by Åberg & Tulkki (1985). The effect is the exact counterpart, in the inelastic spectrum, of anomalous scattering in the elastic spectrum. It is important because, as the resonance condition is approached, the intensity will exceed that due to Compton scattering and therefore play havoc with any corrections to total intensities based solely on the latter.
Although systematic tabulations of resonance Raman scattering do not exist, Fig. 7.4.3.3, which is based on the calculations of Bannett & Freund (1975), shows how the intensity of RRS clearly exceeds that of the Compton scattering for incident energies just below the absorption edge. However, since the problems posed by anomalous scattering and Xray fluorescence are generally appreciated, the energy range is wisely avoided by crystallographers intent upon absolute intensity measurements.
References
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