International
Tables for Crystallography Volume D Physical properties of crystals Edited by A. Authier © International Union of Crystallography 2006 |
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. D, ch. 1.1, pp. 10-31
Section 1.1.4. Symmetry properties^{a}Institut de Minéralogie et de la Physique des Milieux Condensés, Bâtiment 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris, France |
For the symmetry properties of the tensors used in physics, the reader may also consult Bhagavantam (1966), Billings (1969), Mason (1966), Nowick (1995), Nye (1985), Paufler (1986), Shuvalov (1988), Sirotin & Shaskol'skaya (1982), and Wooster (1973).
We saw in Section 1.1.1 that physical properties express in general the response of a medium to an impetus. It has been known for a long time that symmetry considerations play an important role in the study of physical phenomena. These considerations are often very fruitful and have led, for instance, to the discovery of piezoelectricity by the Curie brothers in 1880 (Curie & Curie, 1880, 1881). It is not unusual for physical properties to be related to asymmetries. This is the case in electrical polarization, optical activity etc. The first to codify this role was the German physicist and crystallographer F. E. Neumann, who expressed in 1833 the symmetry principle, now called Neumann's principle: if a crystal is invariant with respect to certain symmetry elements, any of its physical properties must also be invariant with respect to the same symmetry elements (Neumann, 1885).
This principle may be illustrated by considering the optical properties of a crystal. In an anisotropic medium, the index of refraction depends on direction. For a given wave normal, two waves may propagate, with different velocities; this is the double refraction effect. The indices of refraction of the two waves vary with direction and can be found by using the index ellipsoid known as the optical indicatrix (see Section 1.6.3.2 ). Consider the central section of the ellipsoid perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. It is an ellipse. The indices of the two waves that may propagate along this direction are equal to the semi-axes of that ellipse. There are two directions for which the central section is circular, and therefore two wave directions for which there is no double refraction. These directions are called optic axes, and the medium is said to be biaxial. If the medium is invariant with respect to a threefold, a fourfold or a sixfold axis (as in a trigonal, tetragonal or hexagonal crystal, for instance), its ellipsoid must also be invariant with respect to the same axis, according to Neumann's principle. As an ellipsoid can only be ordinary or of revolution, the indicatrix of a trigonal, tetragonal or hexagonal crystal is necessarily an ellipsoid of revolution that has only one circular central section and one optic axis. These crystals are said to be uniaxial. In a cubic crystal that has four threefold axes, the indicatrix must have several axes of revolution, it is therefore a sphere, and cubic media behave as isotropic media for properties represented by a tensor of rank 2.
The example given above shows that the symmetry of the property may possess a higher symmetry than the medium. The property is represented in that case by the indicatrix. The symmetry of an ellipsoid is [Axes are axes of revolution, or axes of isotropy, introduced by Curie (1884, 1894), cf. International Tables for Crystallography (2005), Vol. A, Table 10.1.4.2 .]
The symmetry of the indicatrix is identical to that of the medium if the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic holohedry and is higher in all other cases.
This remark is the basis of the generalization of the symmetry principle by P. Curie (1859–1906). He stated that (Curie, 1894) :
and concludes that some symmetry elements may coexist with the phenomenon but that their presence is not necessary. On the contrary, what is necessary is the absence of certain symmetry elements: `asymmetry creates the phenomenon' (`C'est la dissymétrie qui crée le phénomène'; Curie, 1894, p. 400). Noting that physical phenomena usually express relations between a cause and an effect (an influence and a response), P. Curie restated the two above propositions in the following way, now known as Curie laws, although they are not, properly speaking, laws:
The application of the Curie laws enable one to determine the symmetry characteristic of a phenomenon. Let us consider the phenomenon first as an effect. If Φ is the symmetry of the phenomenon and C the symmetry of the cause that produces it,
Let us now consider the phenomenon as a cause producing a certain effect with symmetry E: We can therefore conclude that
If we choose among the various possible causes the most symmetric one, and among the various possible effects the one with the lowest symmetry, we can then determine the symmetry that characterizes the phenomenon.
As an example, let us determine the symmetry associated with a mechanical force. A force can be considered as the result of a traction effort, the symmetry of which is . If considered as a cause, its effect may be the motion of a sphere in a given direction (for example, a spherical ball falling under its own weight). Again, the symmetry is . The symmetries associated with the force considered as a cause and as an effect being the same, we may conclude that is its characteristic symmetry.
Considered as an effect, an electric field may have been produced by two circular coaxial electrodes, the first one carrying positive electric charges, the other one negative charges (Fig. 1.1.4.1). The cause possesses an axis of revolution and an infinity of mirrors parallel to it, . Considered as a cause, the electric field induces for instance the motion of a spherical electric charge parallel to itself. The associated symmetry is the same in each case, and the symmetry of the electric field is identical to that of a force, . The electric polarization or the electric displacement have the same symmetry.
The determination of the symmetry of magnetic quantities is more delicate. Considered as an effect, magnetic induction may be obtained by passing an electric current in a loop (Fig. 1.1.4.2). The corresponding symmetry is that of a cylinder rotating around its axis, . Conversely, the variation of the flux of magnetic induction through a loop induces an electric current in the loop. If the magnetic induction is considered as a cause, its effect has the same symmetry. The symmetry associated with the magnetic induction is therefore .
This symmetry is completely different from that of the electric field. This difference can be understood by reference to Maxwell's equations, which relate electric and magnetic quantities:
It was seen in Section 1.1.3.8.3 that the curl is an axial vector because it is a vector product. Maxwell's equations thus show that if the electric quantities (E, D) are polar vectors, the magnetic quantities (B, H) are axial vectors and vice versa; the equations of Maxwell are, in effect, perfectly symmetrical on this point. Indeed, one could have been tempted to determine the symmetry of the magnetic field by considering interactions between magnets, which would have led to the symmetry for the magnetic quantities. However, in the world where we live and where the origin of magnetism is in the spin of the electron, the magnetic field is an axial vector of symmetry while the electric field is a polar vector of symmetry .
Let us now consider a phenomenon resulting from the superposition of several causes in the same medium. The symmetry of the global cause is the intersection of the groups of symmetry of the various causes: the asymmetries add up (Curie, 1894). This remark can be applied to the determination of the point groups where physical properties such as pyroelectricity or piezoelectricity are possible.
Pyroelectricity is the property presented by certain materials that exhibit electric polarization when the temperature is changed uniformly. Actually, this property appears in crystals for which the centres of gravity of the positive and negative charges do not coincide in the unit cell. They present therefore a spontaneous polarization that varies with temperature because, owing to thermal expansion, the distances between these centres of gravity are temperature dependent. A very important case is that of the ferroelectric crystals where the direction of the polarization can be changed under the application of an external electric field.
From the viewpoint of symmetry, pyroelectricity can be considered as the superposition of two causes, namely the crystal with its symmetry on one hand and the increase of temperature, which is isotropic, on the other. The intersection of the groups of symmetry of the two causes is in this case identical to the group of symmetry of the crystal. The symmetry associated with the effect is that of the electric polarization that is produced, . Since the asymmetry of the cause must pre-exist in the causes, the latter may not possess more than one axis of symmetry nor mirrors other than those parallel to the single axis. The only crystal point groups compatible with this condition are There are therefore only ten crystallographic groups that are compatible with the pyroelectric effect. For instance, tourmaline, in which the effect was first observed, belongs to 3m.
Piezoelectricity, discovered by the Curie brothers (Curie & Curie, 1880), is the property presented by certain materials that exhibit an electric polarization when submitted to an applied mechanical stress such as a uniaxial compression (see, for instance, Cady, 1964; Ikeda, 1990). Conversely, their shape changes when they are submitted to an external electric field; this is the converse piezoelectric effect. The physical interpretation of piezoelectricity is the following: under the action of the applied stress, the centres of gravity of negative and positive charges move to different positions in the unit cell, which produces an electric polarization.
From the viewpoint of symmetry, piezoelectricity can be considered as the superposition of two causes, the crystal with its own symmetry and the applied stress. The symmetry associated with a uniaxial compression is that of two equal and opposite forces, namely . The effect is an electric polarization, of symmetry , which must be higher than or equal to the intersection of the symmetries of the two causes: where denotes the symmetry of the crystal.
It may be noted that the effect does not possess a centre of symmetry. The crystal point groups compatible with the property of piezoelectricity are therefore among the 21 noncentrosymmetric point groups. More elaborate symmetry considerations show further that group 432 is also not compatible with piezoelectricity. This will be proved in Section 1.1.4.10.4 using the symmetry properties of tensors. There are therefore 20 point groups compatible with piezoelectricity: The intersection of the symmetries of the crystal and of the applied stress depend of course on the orientation of this stress relative to the crystallographic axes. Let us take, for instance, a crystal of quartz, which belongs to group . The above condition becomes If the applied compression is parallel to the threefold axis, the intersection is identical to the symmetry of the crystal, , which possesses symmetry elements that do not exist in the effect, and piezoelectricity cannot appear. This is of course obvious because the threefold axis is not polar. For all other directions, piezoelectricity may appear.
The symmetry of a tensor representing a physical property or a physical quantity may be due either to its own nature or to the symmetry of the medium. The former case is called intrinsic symmetry. It is a property that can be exhibited both by physical property tensors or by field tensors. The latter case is the consequence of Neumann's principle and will be discussed in Section 1.1.4.6. It applies to physical property tensors.
A bilinear form is symmetric if Its components satisfy the relations
The associated matrix, T, is therefore equal to its transpose : In a space with n dimensions, the number of independent components is equal to
Examples
A tensor of rank higher than 2 may be symmetric with respect to the indices of one or more couples of indices. For instance, by its very nature, the demonstration given in Section 1.1.1.4 shows that the tensors representing principal physical properties are of even rank. If n is the rank of the associated square matrix, the number of independent components is equal to . In the case of a tensor of rank 4, such as the tensor of elastic constants relating the strain and stress tensors (Section 1.3.3.2.1 ), the number of components of the tensor is . The associated matrix is a one, and the number of independent components is equal to 45.
A bilinear form is said to be antisymmetric if Its components satisfy the relations The associated matrix, T, is therefore also antisymmetric: The number of independent components is equal to , where n is the number of dimensions of the space. It is equal to 3 in a three-dimensional space, and one can consider these components as those of a pseudovector or axial vector. It must never be forgotten that under a change of basis the components of an axial vector transform like those of a tensor of rank 2.
Every tensor can be decomposed into the sum of two tensors, one symmetric and the other one antisymmetric: with and .
Example. As shown in Section 1.1.3.7.2, the components of the vector product of two vectors, x and y, are really the independent components of an antisymmetric tensor of rank 2. The magnetic quantities, B, H (Section 1.1.4.3.2), the tensor representing the pyromagnetic effect (Section 1.1.1.3) etc. are axial tensors.
If the rank of the tensor is higher than 2, the tensor may be antisymmetric with respect to the indices of one or several couples of indices.
Examples
The two preceding sections have shown examples of axial tensors of ranks 0 (pseudoscalar), 1 (pseudovector) and 2. They have in common that all their components change sign when the sign of the basis is changed, and this can be taken as the definition of an axial tensor. Their components are the components of an antisymmetric tensor of higher rank. It is important to bear in mind that in order to obtain their behaviour in a change of basis, one should first determine the behaviour of the components of this antisymmetric tensor.
Many papers have been devoted to the derivation of the invariant components of physical property tensors under the influence of the symmetry elements of the crystallographic point groups: see, for instance, Fumi (1951, 1952a,b,c, 1987), Fumi & Ripamonti (1980a,b), Nowick (1995), Nye (1957, 1985), Sands (1995), Sirotin & Shaskol'skaya (1982), and Wooster (1973). There are three main methods for this derivation: the matrix method (described in Section 1.1.4.6.1), the direct inspection method (described in Section 1.1.4.6.3) and the group-theoretical method (described in Section 1.2.4 and used in the accompanying software, see Section 1.2.7.4 ).
An operation of symmetry turns back the crystalline edifice on itself; it allows the physical properties of the crystal and the tensors representing them to be invariant. An operation of symmetry is equivalent to a change of coordinate system. In a change of system, a tensor becomes If A represents a symmetry operation, it is a unitary matrix:
Since the tensor is invariant under the action of the symmetry operator A, one has, according to Neumann's principle, and, therefore,
There are therefore a certain number of linear relations between the components of the tensor and the number of independent components is reduced. If there are p components and q relations between the components, there are independent components. This number is independent of the system of axes. When applied to each of the 32 point groups, this reduction enables one to find the form of the tensor in each case. It depends on the rank of the tensor. In the present chapter, the reduction will be derived for tensors up to the fourth rank and for all crystallographic groups as well as for the isotropic groups. An orthonormal frame will be assumed in all cases, so that co- and contravariance will not be apparent and the positions of indices as subscripts or superscripts will not be meaningful. The axis will be chosen parallel to the threefold, fourfold or sixfold axis in the trigonal, tetragonal and hexagonal systems. The accompanying software to the present volume enables the reduction for tensors of any rank to be derived.
If one takes as the system of axes the eigenvectors of the operator A, the matrix is written in the form where θ is the rotation angle, is taken parallel to the rotation axis and coefficient is equal to +1 or −1 depending on whether the rotation axis is direct or inverse (proper or improper operator).
The equations (1.1.4.1) can then be simplified and reduce to (without any summation).
If the product (without summation) is equal to unity, equation (1.1.4.2) is trivial and there is significance in the component . On the contrary, if it is different from 1, the only solution for (1.1.4.2) is that . One then finds immediately that certain components of the tensor are zero and that others are unchanged.
All the diagonal components are in this case equal to −1. One thus has:
By replacing the matrix coefficients by their expression, (1.1.4.2) becomes, for a proper rotation, where r is the number of indices equal to 1, s is the number of indices equal to 2, t is the number of indices equal to 3 and is the rank of the tensor. The component is not affected by the symmetry operation if where K is an integer, and is equal to zero if
The angle of rotation θ can be put into the form , where q is the order of the axis. The condition for the component not to be zero is then
The condition is fulfilled differently depending on the rank of the tensor, p, and the order of the axis, q. Indeed, we have and
It follows that:
The inconvenience of the diagonalization method is that the vectors and eigenvalues are, in general, complex, so in practice one uses another method. For instance, we may note that equation (1.1.4.1) can be written in the case of by associating with the tensor a matrix T: where B is the symmetry operation. Through identification of homologous coefficients in matrices T and , one obtains relations between components that enable the determination of the independent components.
The method of `direct inspection', due to Fumi (1952a,b, 1987), is very simple. It is based on the fundamental properties of tensors; the components transform under a change of basis like a product of vector components (Section 1.1.3.2).
Examples
It is not possible to apply the method of direct inspection for point group 3. One must in this case use the matrix method described in Section 1.1.4.6.2; once this result is assumed, the method can be applied to all other point groups.
The reduction is given for each of the 11 Laue classes.
Groups , 1: no reduction, the tensor has 9 independent components. The result is represented in the following symbolic way (Nye, 1957, 1985): where the sign • represents a nonzero component.
Groups 2m, 2, m: it is sufficient to consider the twofold axis or the mirror. As the representative matrix is diagonal, the calculation is immediate. Taking the twofold axis to be parallel to , one has
The other components are not affected. The result is represented as
There are 5 independent components. If the twofold axis is taken along axis , which is the usual case in crystallography, the table of independent components becomes
Groups mmm, 2mm, 222: the reduction is obtained by considering two perpendicular twofold axes, parallel to and to , respectively. One obtains
There are 3 independent components.
We remarked in Section 1.1.4.6.2.3 that, in the case of tensors of rank 2, the reduction is the same for threefold, fourfold or sixfold axes. It suffices therefore to perform the reduction for the tetragonal groups. That for the other systems follows automatically.
If we consider a fourfold axis parallel to represented by the matrix given in (1.1.4.3), by applying the direct inspection method one finds where the symbol ⊖ means that the corresponding component is numerically equal to that to which it is linked, but of opposite sign. There are 3 independent components.
The cubic system is characterized by the presence of threefold axes along the directions. The action of a threefold axis along [111] on the components of a vector results in a permutation of these components, which become, respectively, and then . One deduces that the components of a tensor of rank 2 satisfy the relations
The cubic groups all include as a subgroup the group 23 of which the generating elements are a twofold axis along and a threefold axis along [111]. If one combines the corresponding results, one deduces that which can be summarized by
There is a single independent component and the medium behaves like a property represented by a tensor of rank 2, like an isotropic medium.
If the tensor is symmetric, the number of independent components is still reduced. One obtains the following, representing the nonzero components for the leading diagonal and for one half of the others.
There are 6 independent components. It is possible to interpret the number of independent components of a tensor of rank 2 by considering the associated quadric, for instance the optical indicatrix. In the triclinic system, the quadric is any quadric. It is characterized by six parameters: the lengths of the three axes and the orientation of these axes relative to the crystallographic axes.
There are 4 independent components. The quadric is still any quadric, but one of its axes coincides with the twofold axis of the monoclinic lattice. Four parameters are required: the lengths of the axes and one angle.
There are 3 independent components. The quadric is any quadric, the axes of which coincide with the crystallographic axes. Only three parameters are required.
There are 2 independent components. The quadric is of revolution. It is characterized by two parameters: the lengths of its two axes.
Choosing the twofold axis parallel to and applying the direct inspection method, one finds
There are 13 independent components. If the twofold axis is parallel to , one finds
One obtains the matrix representing the operator m by multiplying by −1 the coefficients of the matrix representing a twofold axis. The result of the reduction will then be exactly complementary: the components of the tensor which include an odd number of 3's are now equal to zero. One writes the result as follows:
There are 14 independent components. If the mirror axis is normal to , one finds
There are three orthonormal twofold axes. The reduction is obtained by combining the results associated with two twofold axes, parallel to and , respectively.
There are 6 independent components.
The method of direct inspection can be applied for a fourfold axis. One finds
There are 7 independent components.
The matrix corresponding to axis is and the form of the matrix is
There are 6 independent components.
One combines either the reductions for groups and 222, or the reductions for groups and 2mm.
The number of independent components is of course the same, 6.
It was shown in Section 1.1.4.6.2.3 that, in the case of tensors of rank 3, the reduction is the same for axes of order 4, 6 or higher. The reduction will then be the same as for the tetragonal system.
One combines the reductions for the groups corresponding to a threefold axis parallel to and to a mirror perpendicular to :
There are 2 independent components.
One combines the reductions corresponding to a twofold axis parallel to and to a threefold axis parallel to [111]:
There are 2 independent components.
There is no reduction; all the components are independent. Their number is equal to 81. They are usually represented as a matrix, where components are replaced by ijkl, for brevity: This matrix can be represented symbolically by where the matrix has been subdivided for clarity in to nine submatrices.
The reduction is obtained by the method of direct inspection. For a twofold axis parallel to , one finds
There are 41 independent components.
For symmetric tensors such as those representing principal properties, one finds the following, representing the nonzero components for the leading diagonal and for one half of the others.
Many tensors representing physical properties or physical quantities appear in relations involving symmetric tensors. Consider, for instance, the strain resulting from the application of an electric field E (the piezoelectric effect): where the first-order terms represent the components of the third-rank converse piezoelectric tensor and the second-order terms represent the components of the fourth-rank electrostriction tensor. In a similar way, the direct piezoelectric effect corresponds to the appearance of an electric polarization P when a stress is applied to a crystal:
Owing to the symmetry properties of the strain and stress tensors (see Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 ) and of the tensor product , there occurs a further reduction of the number of independent components of the tensors which are engaged in a contracted product with them, as is shown in Section 1.1.4.10.3 for third-rank tensors and in Section 1.1.4.10.5 for fourth-rank tensors.
The stress and strain tensors are symmetric because body torques and rotations are not taken into account, respectively (see Sections 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 ). Their components are usually represented using Voigt's one-index notation.
1.1.4.10.3. Reduction of the number of independent components of third-rank polar tensors due to the symmetry of the strain and stress tensors
Equation (1.1.4.5) can be written
The sums for have a definite physical meaning, but it is impossible to devise an experiment that permits and to be measured separately. It is therefore usual to set them equal:
It was seen in Section 1.1.4.8.1 that the components of a third-rank tensor can be represented as a matrix which can be subdivided into three submatrices:
Relation (1.1.4.7) shows that submatrices 1 and 2 are identical.
One puts, introducing a two-index notation, Relation (1.1.4.7) becomes
The coefficients may be written as a matrix: This matrix is constituted by two submatrices. The left-hand one is identical to the submatrix 1, and the right-hand one is equal to the sum of the two submatrices 2 and 3:
The inverse piezoelectric effect expresses the strain in a crystal submitted to an applied electric field: where the matrix associated with the coefficients is a matrix which is the transpose of that of the coefficients used in equation (1.1.4.5), as shown in Section 1.1.1.4.
The components of the Voigt strain matrix are then given by This relation can be written simply as where the matrix of the coefficients is a matrix which is the transpose of the matrix.
There is another set of piezoelectric constants (see Section 1.1.5) which relates the stress, , and the electric field, , which are both intensive parameters: where a new piezoelectric tensor is introduced, . Its components can be represented as a matrix:
Both sides of relation (1.1.4.8) remain unchanged if the indices i and j are interchanged, on account of the symmetry of the stress tensor. This shows that
Submatrices 2 and 3 are equal. One introduces here a two-index notation through the relation , and the matrix can be written
The relation between the full and the reduced matrix is therefore different for the and the tensors. This is due to the particular property of the strain Voigt matrix (1.1.4.6), and as a consequence the relations between nonzero components of the reduced matrices are different for certain point groups (3, 32, , , ).
1.1.4.10.4. Independent components of the matrix associated with a third-rank polar tensor according to the following point groups
1.1.4.10.5. Reduction of the number of independent components of fourth-rank polar tensors due to the symmetry of the strain and stress tensors
Let us consider five examples of fourth-rank tensors:
In each of the equations from (1.1.4.9) to (1.1.4.10), the contracted product of a fourth-rank tensor by a symmetric second-rank tensor is equal to a symmetric second-rank tensor. As in the case of the third-rank tensors, this results in a reduction of the number of independent components, but because of the properties of the strain Voigt matrix, and because two of the tensors are endowed with intrinsic symmetry (the elastic tensors), the reduction is different for each of the five tensors. The above relations can be written in matrix form: where the second-rank tensors are represented by column matrices, which can each be subdivided into three submatrices and the matrix associated with the fourth-rank tensors is subdivided into nine submatrices, as shown in Section 1.1.4.9.1. The symmetry of the second-rank tensors means that submatrices 2 and 3 which are associated with them are equal.
Let us first consider the reduction of the tensor of elastic compliances. As in the case of the piezoelectric tensor, equation (1.1.4.9) can be written
The sums for have a definite physical meaning, but it is impossible to devise an experiment permitting and to be measured separately. It is therefore usual to set them equal in order to avoid an unnecessary constant:
Furthermore, the left-hand term of (1.1.4.11) remains unchanged if we interchange the indices i and j. The terms on the right-hand side therefore also remain unchanged, whatever the value of or . It follows that Similar relations hold for , , and : the submatrices 2 and 3, 4 and 7, 5, 6, 8 and 9, respectively, are equal.
Equation (1.4.1.11) can be rewritten, introducing the coefficients of the Voigt strain matrix: We shall now introduce a two-index notation for the elastic compliances, according to the following conventions: We have thus associated with the fourth-rank tensor a square matrix with 36 coefficients:
One can translate relation (1.1.4.12) using the matrix representing by adding term by term the coefficients of submatrices 2 and 3, 4 and 7 and 5, 6, 8 and 9, respectively:
Using the two-index notation, equation (1.1.4.9) becomes
A similar development can be applied to the other fourth-rank tensors , which will be replaced by matrices with 36 coefficients, according to the following rules.
1.1.4.10.6. Independent components of the matrix associated with a fourth-rank tensor according to the following point groups
It was shown in Section 1.1.4.5.3.2 that axial tensors of rank 2 are actually tensors of rank 3 antisymmetric with respect to two indices. The matrix of independent components of a tensor such that is given by The second-rank axial tensor associated with this tensor is defined by
For instance, the piezomagnetic coefficients that give the magnetic moment due to an applied stress are the components of a second-rank axial tensor, (see Section 1.5.7.1 ):
1.1.4.10.7.2. Independent components of symmetric axial tensors according to the following point groups
Some axial tensors are also symmetric. For instance, the optical rotatory power of a gyrotropic crystal in a given direction of direction cosines is proportional to a quantity G defined by (see Section 1.6.5.4 ) where the gyration tensor is an axial tensor. This expression shows that only the symmetric part of is relevant. This leads to a further reduction of the number of independent components:
In practice, gyrotropic crystals are only found among the enantiomorphic groups: 1, 2, 222, 3, 32, 4, 422, 6, 622, 23, 432. Pasteur (1848a,b) was the first to establish the distinction between `molecular dissymmetry' and `crystalline dissymetry'.
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