International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume D
Physical properties of crystals
Edited by A. Authier

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. D, ch. 3.4, pp. 451-470

Section 3.4.2. Domain states

V. Janoveca* and J. Přívratskáb

aDepartment of Physics, Technical University of Liberec, Hálkova 6, 461 17 Liberec 1, Czech Republic, and bDepartment of Mathematics and Didactics of Mathematics, Technical University of Liberec, Hálkova 6, 461 17 Liberec 1, Czech Republic
Correspondence e-mail:  janovec@fzu.cz

3.4.2. Domain states

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3.4.2.1. Principal and basic domain states

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As for all crystalline materials, domain structures can be approached in two ways: In the microscopic description, a crystal is treated as a regular arrangement of atoms. Domains differ in tiny differences of atomic positions which can be determined only indirectly, e.g. by diffraction techniques. In what follows, we shall pay main attention to the continuum description, in which a crystal is treated as an anisotropic continuum. Then the crystal properties are described by property tensors (see Section 1.1.1[link] ) and the crystal symmetry is expressed by crystallographic point groups. In this approach, domains exhibit different tensor properties that enable one to visualize domains by optical or other methods.

The domain structure observed in a microscope appears to be a patchwork of homogeneous regions – domains – that have various colours and shapes (see Fig. 3.4.1.1[link]). Indeed, the usual description considers a domain structure as a collection of domains and contact regions of domains called domain walls. Strictly speaking, by a domain [{\bf D}_i] one understands a connected part of the crystal, called the domain region, which is filled with a homogeneous low-symmetry crystal structure. Domain walls can be associated with the boundaries of domain regions. The interior homogeneous bulk structure within a domain region will be called a domain state. Equivalent terms are variant or structural variant (Van Tendeloo & Amelinckx, 1974[link]). We shall use different adjectives to specify domain states. In the microscopic description, domain states associated with the primary order parameter will be referred to as primary (microscopic, basic) domain states. In the macroscopic description, the primary domain states will be called principal domain states, which correspond to Aizu's orientation states. (An exact definition of principal domain states is given below.)

Further useful division of domain states is possible (though not generally accepted): Domain states that are specified by a constant value of the spontaneous strain are called ferroelastic domain states; similarly, ferroelectric domain states exhibit constant spontaneous polarization etc. Domain states that differ in some tensor properties are called ferroic or tensorial domain states etc. If no specification is given, the statements will apply to any of these domain states.

A domain [{\bf D}_i] is specified by a domain state [{\bf S}_j ] and by domain region [B_k]: [{\bf D}_i =] [{\bf D}_i({\bf S}_j,B_k)]. Different domains may possess the same domain state but always differ in the domain region that specifies their shape and position in space.

The term `domain' has also often been used for a domain state. Clear distinction of these two notions is essential in further considerations and is illustrated in Fig. 3.4.2.1[link]. A ferroelectric domain structure (Fig. 3.4.2.1a[link]) consists of six ferroelectric domains [{\bf D}_1], [{\bf D}_2], [\ldots], [{\bf D}_6] but contains only two domain states [{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_2] characterized by opposite directions of the spontaneous polarization depicted in Fig. 3.4.2.1(d[link]). Neighbouring domains have different domain states but non-neighbouring domains may possess the same domain state. Thus domains with odd serial number have the domain state [{\bf S}_1] (spontaneous polarization `down'), whereas domains with even number have domain state [{\bf S}_2] (spontaneous polarization `up').

[Figure 3.4.2.1]

Figure 3.4.2.1 | top | pdf |

Hierarchy in domain-structure analysis. (a) Domain structure consisting of domains [{\bf D}_1, {\bf D}_2,\ldots, {\bf D}_6] and domain walls [{\bf W}_{12}] and [{\bf W}_{21}]; (b) domain twin and reversed twin (with reversed order of domain states); (c) domain pair consisting of two domain states [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_2]; (d) domain states [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_2 ].

A great diversity of observed domain structures are connected mainly with various dimensions and shapes of domain regions, whose shapes depend sensitively on many factors (kinetics of the phase transition, local stresses, defects etc.). It is, therefore, usually very difficult to interpret in detail a particular observed domain pattern. Domain states of domains are, on the other hand, governed by simple laws, as we shall now demonstrate.

We shall consider a ferroic phase transition with a symmetry lowering from a parent (prototypic, high-symmetry) phase with symmetry described by a point group G to a ferroic phase with the point-group symmetry [F_1 ], which is a subgroup of G. We shall denote this dissymmetrization by a group–subgroup symbol [G \supset F_1] (or [G\Downarrow F_1 ] in Section 3.1.3[link] ) and call it a symmetry descent or dissymmetrization. Aizu (1970a[link]) calls these symmetry descents species and uses the letter F instead of the symbol [\subset].

As an illustrative example, we choose a phase transition with parent symmetry [G =4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] and ferroic symmetry [F_1=2_xm_ym_z] (see Fig. 3.4.2.2[link]). Strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) crystals, for instance, exhibit a phase transition with this symmetry descent (Chen et al., 2000[link]). Symmetry elements in the symbols of G and [F_1] are supplied with subscripts specifying the orientation of the symmetry elements with respect to the reference coordinate system. The necessity of this extended notation is exemplified by the fact that the group [G = 4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] has six subgroups with the same `non-oriented' symbol [mm2]: [m_xm_y2_z], [2_xm_ym_z], [m_x2_ym_z ], [m_{x{\bar y}}m_{xy}2_z], [2_{x{\bar y}}m_{xy}m_z], [m_{x{\bar y}}2_{xy}m_z]. Lower indices thus specify these subgroups unequivocally and the example illustrates an important rule of domain-structure analysis: All symmetry operations, groups and tensor components must be related to a common reference coordinate system and their orientation in space must be clearly specified.

[Figure 3.4.2.2]

Figure 3.4.2.2 | top | pdf |

Exploded view of single-domain states [{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_2], [{\bf S}_3] and [{\bf S}_4 ] (solid rectangles with arrows of spontaneous polarization) formed at a phase transition from a parent phase with symmetry [G=4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] to a ferroic phase with symmetry [F_1=2_xm_ym_z]. The parent phase is represented by a dashed square in the centre with the symmetry elements of the parent group [G=4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] shown.

The physical properties of crystals in the continuum description are expressed by property tensors. As explained in Section 1.1.4[link] , the crystal symmetry reduces the number of independent components of these tensors. Consequently, for each property tensor the number of independent components in the low-symmetry ferroic phase is the same or higher than in the high-symmetry parent phase. Those tensor components or their linear combinations that are zero in the high-symmetry phase and nonzero in the low-symmetry phase are called morphic tensor components or tensor parameters and the quantities that appear only in the low-symmetry phase are called spontaneous quantities (see Section 3.1.3.2[link] ). The morphic tensor components and spontaneous quantities thus reveal the difference between the high- and low-symmetry phases. In our example, the symmetry [F_1 =2_xm_ym_z ] allows a nonzero spontaneous polarization [{\rm P}^{(1)}_0] [=(P,0,0) ], which must be zero in the high-symmetry phase with [G=4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ].

We shall now demonstrate in our example that the symmetry lowering at the phase transition leads to the existence of several equivalent variants (domain states) of the low-symmetry phase. In Fig. 3.4.2.2[link], the parent high-symmetry phase is represented in the middle by a dashed square that is a projection of a square prism with symmetry [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ]. A possible variant of the low-symmetry phase can be represented by an oblong prism with a vector representing the spontaneous polarization. In Fig. 3.4.2.2[link], the projection of this oblong prism is drawn as a rectangle which is shifted out of the centre for better recognition. We denote by [{\bf S}_1] a homogeneous low-symmetry phase with spontaneous polarization [{\rm P}^{(1)}_0=(P,0,0)] and with symmetry F1 = [2_xm_ym_z]. Let us, mentally, increase the temperature to above the transition temperature and then apply to the high-symmetry phase an operation [2_z], which is a symmetry operation of this high-symmetry phase but not of the low-symmetry phase. Then decrease the temperature to below the transition temperature. The appearance of another variant of the low-symmetry phase [{\bf S}_2] with spontaneous polarization [{\rm P}^{(2)}_0=(-P,0,0) ] obviously has the same probability of appearing as had the variant [{\bf S}_1]. Thus the two variants of the low-symmetry phase [{\bf S}_1 ] and [{\bf S}_2] can appear with the same probability if they are related by a symmetry operation suppressed (lost) at the transition, i.e. an operation that was a symmetry operation of the high-symmetry phase but is not a symmetry operation of the low-symmetry phase [{\bf S}_1 ]. In the same way, the lost symmetry operations [4_z] and [4^3_z] generate from [{\bf S}_1] two other variants, [{\bf S}_3 ] and [{\bf S}_4], with spontaneous polarizations [(0,P,0)] and [(0,-P,0)], respectively. Variants of the low-symmetry phase that are related by an operation of the high-symmetry group G are called crystallographically equivalent (in G) variants. Thus we conclude that crystallographically equivalent (in G) variants of the low-symmetry phase have the same chance of appearing.

We shall now make similar considerations for a general ferroic phase transition with a symmetry descent [G\supset F_1]. By the state S of a crystal we shall understand, in the continuum description, the set of all its properties expressed by property (matter) tensors in the reference Cartesian crystallophysical coordinate system of the parent phase (see Example 3.2.3.9[link] in Section 3.2.3.3.1[link] ). A state defined in this way may change not only with temperature and external fields but also with the orientation of the crystal in space.

We denote by [{\bf S}_1] a state of a homogeneous ferroic phase. If we apply to [{\bf S}_1] a symmetry operation [g_i] of the group G, then the ferroic phase in a new orientation will have the state [{\bf S}_j], which may be identical with [{\bf S}_1] or different. Using the concept of group action (explained in detail in Section 3.2.3.3.1[link] ) we express this operation by a simple relation: [g_j{\bf S}_1 = {\bf S}_j, \quad g_j \in G. \eqno(3.4.2.1) ]

Let us first turn our attention to operations [f_j \in G] that do not change the state [{\bf S}_1]: [f_j{\bf S}_1 = {\bf S}_j,\quad f_j \in G. \eqno(3.4.2.2) ]The set of all operations of G that leave [{\bf S}_1] invariant form a group called a stabilizer (or isotropy group) of a state [{\bf S}_1] in the group G. This stabilizer, denoted by [I_G({\bf S}_1)], can be expressed explicitly in the following way: [I_G({\bf S}_1) \equiv \{g \in G|g{\bf S}_1 = {\bf S}_1\}, \eqno(3.4.2.3) ]where the right-hand part of the equation should be read as `a set of all operations of G that do not change the state [{\bf S}_1]' (see Section 3.2.3.3.2[link] ).

Here we have to explain the difference between the concept of a stabilizer of an object and the symmetry of that object. By the symmetry group F of an object one understands the set of all operations (isometries) that leave this object [{\bf S}] invariant. The symmetry group F of an object is considered to be an inherent property that does not depend on the orientation and position of the object in space. (The term eigensymmetry is used in Chapter 3.3[link] for symmetry groups defined in this way.) In this case, the symmetry elements of F are `attached' to the object.

A stabilizer describes the symmetry properties of an object in another way, in which the object and the group of isometries are decoupled. One is given a group G, the symmetry elements of which have a defined orientation in a fixed reference system. The object can have any orientation in this reference system. Those operations of G that map the object in a given orientation onto itself form the stabilizer [I_G({\bf S}_1)] of [{\bf S}_i] in the group G. In this case, the stabilizer depends on the orientation of the object in space and is expressed by an `oriented' group symbol [F_1] with subscripts defining the orientation of the symmetry elements of [F_1]. Only for certain `prominent' orientations will the stabilizer acquire a symmetry group of the same crystal class (crystallographic point group) as the eigensymmetry of the object.

We shall define a single-domain orientation as a prominent orientation of the crystal in which the stabilizer [I_G({\bf S}_1)] of its state [{\bf S}_1] is equal to the symmetry group [F_1] which is, after removing subscripts specifying the orientation, identical with the eigensymmetry of the ferroic phase: [I_G({\bf S}_1) = F_1. \eqno(3.4.2.4) ]This equation thus declares that the crystal in the state [{\bf S}_1 ] has a prominent single-domain orientation.

The concept of the stabilizer allows us to identify the `eigensymmetry' of a domain state (or an object in general) [{\bf S}_i] with the crystallographic class (non-oriented point group) of the stabilizer of this state in the group of all rotations O(3), [I_{O(3)}({\bf S}_i) ].

Since we shall further deal mainly with states of the ferroic phase in single-domain orientations, we shall use the term `state' for a `state of the crystal in a single-domain orientation', unless mentioned otherwise. Then the stabilizer [I_G({\bf S}_1)] will often be replaced by the group [F_1], although all statements have been derived and hold for stabilizers.

The difference between symmetry groups of a crystal and stabilizers will become more obvious in the treatment of secondary domain states in Section 3.4.2.2[link] and in discussing disoriented ferroelastic domain states (see Section 3.4.3.6.3[link]).

As we have seen in our illustrative example, the suppressed operations generate from the first state [{\bf S}_1] other states. Let [g_j ] be such a suppressed operation, i.e. [g_j \in G ] but [g_j \not\in F_1]. Since all operations that retain [{\bf S}_1] are collected in [F_1], the operation [g_j] must transform [{\bf S}_1] into another state [{\bf S}_j], [g_j{\bf S}_1 = {\bf S}_j \not= {\bf S}_1,\quad g_j\in G,\quad g_j \not\in F_1, \eqno(3.4.2.5) ]and we say that the state [{\bf S}_j] is crystallographically equivalent (in G) with the state [{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_j \buildrel {G} \over \sim {\bf S}_1 ].

We define principal domain states as crystallographically equivalent (in G) variants of the low-symmetry phase in single-domain orientations that can appear with the same probability in the ferroic phase. They represent possible macroscopic bulk structures of (1) ferroic single-domain crystals, (2) ferroic domains in non-ferroelastic domain structures (see Section 3.4.3.5[link]), or (3) ferroic domains in any ferroic domain structure, if all spontaneous strains are suppressed [this is the so-called parent clamping approximation (PCA), see Section 3.4.2.5[link]]. In what follows, any statement formulated for principal domain states or for single-domain states applies to any of these three situations. Principal domain states are identical with orientation states (Aizu, 1969[link]) or orientation variants (Van Tendeloo & Amelinckx, 1974[link]). The adjective `principal' distinguishes these domain states from primary (microscopic, basic – see Section 3.4.2.5[link]) domain states and secondary domain states, defined in Section 3.4.2.2[link], and implies that any two of these domain states differ in principal tensor parameters (these are linear combinations of morphic tensor components that transform as the primary order parameter of an equitranslational phase transition with a point-group symmetry descent [G\supset F_1], see Sections 3.1.3.2[link] and 3.4.2.3[link]). A simple criterion for a principal domain state [{\bf S}_1] is that its stabilizer in G is equal to the symmetry [F_1] of the ferroic phase [see equation (3.4.2.4[link])].

When one applies to a principal domain state [{\bf S}_1] all operations of the group G, one gets all principal domain states that are crystallographically equivalent with [{\bf S}_1]. The set of all these states is denoted [G{\bf S}_1] and is called an G-orbit of [{\bf S}_1] (see also Section 3.2.3.3.3[link] ), [G{\bf S}_1 = \{{\bf S}_1, {\bf S}_2,\ldots,{\bf S}_n\}. \eqno(3.4.2.6) ]In our example, the G-orbit is [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}{\bf S}_1=\{{\bf S}_1,{\bf S}_2,{\bf S}_3,{\bf S}_4\} ].

Note that any operation g from the parent group G leaves the orbit [G{\bf S}_1] invariant since its action results only in a permutation of all principal domain states. This change does not alter the orbit, since the orbit is a set in which the sequence (order) of objects is irrelevant. Therefore, the orbit [G{\bf S}_1] is invariant under the action of the parent group G, [GG{\bf S}_1 = G{\bf S}_1].

A ferroic phase transition is thus a paradigmatic example of the law of symmetry compensation (see Section 3.2.2[link] ): The dissymmetrization of a high-symmetry parent phase into a low-symmetry ferroic phase produces variants of the low-symmetry ferroic phase (single-domain states). Any two single-domain states are related by some suppressed operations of the parent symmetry that are missing in the ferroic symmetry and the set of all single-domain states (G-orbit of domain states) recovers the symmetry of the parent phase. If the domain structure contains all domain states with equal partial volumes then the average symmetry of this polydomain structure is, in the first approximation, identical to the symmetry of the parent phase.

Now we find a simple formula for the number n of principal domain states in the orbit [G{\bf S}_1] and a recipe for an efficient generation of all principal domain states in this orbit.

The fact that all operations of the group [I_G({\bf S}_1)=F_1] leave [{\bf S}_1] invariant can be expressed in an abbreviated form in the following way [see equation (3.2.3.70[link] )]: [F_1{\bf S}_1 = {\bf S}_1. \eqno(3.4.2.7)]We shall use this relation to derive all operations that transform [{\bf S}_1] into [{\bf S}_j = g_j{\bf S}_1]: [g_j{\bf S}_1 = g_j(F_1{\bf S}_1) = (g_jF_1){\bf S}_1 = {\bf S}_j, \quad g_j\in G. \eqno(3.4.2.8) ]The second part of equation (3.4.2.8[link]) shows that all lost operations that transform [{\bf S}_1] into [{\bf S}_j] are contained in the left coset [g_jF_1] (for left cosets see Section 3.2.3.2.3[link] ).

It is shown in group theory that two left cosets have no operation in common. Therefore, another left coset [g_kF_1] generates another principal domain state [{\bf S}_k] that is different from principal domain states [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_j]. Equation (3.4.2.8)[link] defines, therefore, a one-to-one relation between principal domain states of the orbit [G{\bf S}_1] and left cosets of [F_1] [see equation (3.2.3.69[link] )], [{\bf S}_j \leftrightarrow g_{j}F_1, \quad F_1= I_G({\bf S}_1), \quad j = 1,2,\ldots, n. \eqno(3.4.2.9) ]From this relation follow two conclusions:

  • (1) The number n of principal domain states equals the number of left cosets of [F_1]. All different left cosets of [F_1] constitute the decomposition of the group G into left cosets of [F_1] [see equation (3.2.3.19[link] )], [G = g_1F_{1} \cup g_2F_{1} \cup\ldots\cup g_jF_{1}\cup\ldots \cup g_nF_{1}, \eqno(3.4.2.10) ]where the symbol [\cup] is a union of sets and the number n of left cosets is called the index of G in [F_1] and is denoted by the symbol [[G:F_1]]. Usually, one chooses for [g_1 ] the identity operation e; then the first left coset equals [F_1]. Since each left coset contains [|F_1|] operations, where [|F_1|] is number of operations of [F_1] (order of [F_1]), the number of left cosets in the decomposition (3.4.2.10[link]) is [n=[G:F_1]=|G|:|F_1|, \eqno(3.4.2.11)]where [|G|, |F_1|] are orders of the point groups [G, F_1], respectively. The index n is a quantitative measure of the degree of dissymmetrization [G \supset F_1]. Thus the number of principal domain states in orbit [G{\bf S}_1] is equal to the index of [F_1] in G, i.e. to the number of operations of the high-symmetry group G divided by the number of operations of the low-symmetry phase [F_1]. In our illustrative example we get [n =|4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}|:|2_xm_ym_z|= 16:4= 4].

    The basic formula (3.4.2.11[link]) expresses a remarkable result: the number n of principal domain states is determined by how many times the number of symmetry operations increases at the transition from the low-symmetry group [F_1] to the high-symmetry group G, or, the other way around, the fraction [{{1}\over{n}}] is a quantitative measure of the symmetry decrease from G to [F_1], [|F_1| = {{1}\over{n}}|G|]. Thus it is not the concrete structural change, nor even the particular symmetries of both phases, but only the extent of dissymmetrization that determines the number of principal domain states. This conclusion illustrates the fundamental role of symmetry in domain structures.

  • (2) Relation (3.4.2.9[link]) yields a recipe for calculating all principal domain states of the orbit [G{\bf S}_1]: One applies successively to the first principal domain states [{\bf S}_1] the representatives of all left cosets of [F_1]: [G{\bf S}_1 = \{{\bf S}_1, g_2{\bf S}_1,\ldots, g_j{\bf S}_1,\ldots, g_n{\bf S}_1\}, \eqno(3.4.2.12) ]where the operations [g_1 = e,g_2,\ldots,g_j,\ldots,g_n] are the representatives of left cosets in the decomposition (3.4.2.10[link]) and e is an identity operation. We add that any operation of a left coset can be chosen as its representative, hence the operation [g_j] can be chosen arbitrarily from the left coset [g_jF_1], [j=1,2,\ldots,n ].

This result can be illustrated in our example. Table 3.4.2.1[link] presents in the first column the four left cosets [g_j\{2_xm_ym_z\}] of the group [F_1 = 2_xm_ym_z]. The corresponding principal domain states [{\bf S}_j], [j = 1,2,3,4,] and the values of spontaneous polarization in these principal domain states are given in the second and the third columns, respectively. It is easy to verify in Fig. 3.4.2.2[link] that all operations of each left coset transform the first principal domain state [{\bf S}_1] into one principal domain state [{\bf S}_j], [j = 2, 3, 4.]

Table 3.4.2.1| top | pdf |
Left and double cosets, principal and secondary domain states and their tensor parameters for the phase transition with [G=4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] and [F_1=2_xm_ym_z]

Left cosets [g_j{\bf S}_1]Principal domain statesSecondary domain states
[1] [2_x] [m_y] [m_z] [{\bf S}_1] [(P00) ] [(000g00) ] [{\bf R}_1] [u_{1}-u_{2}] [Q_{11}-Q_{22}]
[\bar{1} ] [m_x] [2_y] [2_z] [{\bf S}_2 ] [(-P00) ] [(000{-g}00) ]
[2_{xy} ] [4_z ] [\bar{4}^3_{z} ] [m_{x\bar{y}}] [{\bf S}_3 ] [(0P0) ] [(0000{-g}0) ] [{\bf R}_2 ] [u_{2}-u_{1} ] [Q_{22}-Q_{11} ]
[2_{x\bar{y}} ] [4^3_z] [\bar{4}_{z}] [m_{xy}] [{\bf S}_4 ] [(0{-P}0) ] [(0000g0)]

The left coset decompositions of all crystallographic point groups and their subgroup symmetry are available in the software GI[\star ]KoBo-1, path: Subgroups\View\Twinning Group.

Let us turn briefly to the symmetries of the principal domain states. From Fig. 3.4.2.2[link] we deduce that two domain states [{\bf S}_1 ] and [{\bf S}_2] in our illustrative example have the same symmetry, [F_1 =] [F_2 =2_xm_ym_z], whereas two others [{\bf S}_3] and [{\bf S}_4] have another symmetry, [F_3 =F_4 =m_x2_ym_z]. We see that symmetry does not specify the principal domain state in a unique way, although a principal domain state [{\bf S}_j] has a unique symmetry [F_i =I_G({\bf S}_j)].

It turns out that if [g_j] transforms [{\bf S}_1] into [{\bf S}_j], then the symmetry group [F_j] of [{\bf S}_j] is conjugate by [g_j] to the symmetry group [F_1] of [{\bf S}_1 ] [see Section 3.2.3.3[link] , Proposition 3.2.3.13[link] and equation (3.2.3.55[link] )]: [\hbox {if }{\bf S}_j = g_j{\bf S}_1, \hbox { then } F_j = g_jF_1g_j^{-1}. \eqno(3.4.2.13) ]One can easily check that in our example each operation of the second left coset of [F_1=2_xm_ym_z] (second row in Table 3.4.2.1[link]) transforms [F_1=2_xm_ym_z] into itself, whereas operations from the third and fourth left cosets yield [F_3=F_4=m_x2_ym_z]. We shall return to this issue again at the end of Section 3.4.2.2.3[link].

3.4.2.2. Secondary domain states, partition of domain states

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In this section we demonstrate that any morphic (spontaneous) property appears in the low-symmetry phase in several equivalent variants and find what determines their number and basic properties.

As we saw in Fig. 3.4.2.2[link], the spontaneous polarization – a principal tensor parameter of the [4_z/m_zm_xm_{x y}\supset 2_xm_ym_z ] phase transition – can appear in four different directions that define four principal domain states. Another morphic property is a spontaneous strain describing the change of unit-cell shape; it is depicted in Fig. 3.4.2.2[link] as a transformation of a square into a rectangle. This change can be expressed by a difference between two strain components [u_{11}-u_{22}={\lambda}^{(1)} ], which is a morphic tensor parameter since it is zero in the parent phase and nonzero in the ferroic phase. The quantity [{\lambda}^{(1)}=u_{11}-u_{22} ] is a secondary order parameter of the transition [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} \supset 2_xm_ym_z ] (for secondary order parameters see Section 3.1.3.2[link] ).

From Fig. 3.4.2.2[link], we see that two domain states [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_2] have the same spontaneous strain, whereas [{\bf S}_3] and [{\bf S}_4] exhibit another spontaneous strain [{\lambda}^{(2)}=u_{22}-u_{11}=-{\lambda}^{(1)}]. Thus we can infer that a property `to have the same value of spontaneous strain' divides the four principal domain states [{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_2], [{\bf S}_3 ] and [{\bf S}_4] into two classes: [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_2] with the same spontaneous strain [{\lambda}^{(1)}] and [{\bf S}_3] and [{\bf S}_4] with the same spontaneous strain [{\lambda}^{(2)}=-{\lambda}^{(1)}]. Spontaneous strain appears in two `variants': [{\lambda}^{(1)} ] and [{\lambda}^{(2)}=-{\lambda}^{(1)}].

We can define a ferroelastic domain state as a state of the crystal with a certain value of spontaneous strain [\lambda], irrespective of the value of the principal order parameter. Values [\lambda={\lambda}^{(1)} ] and [{\lambda}^{(2)}=-{\lambda}^{(1)}] thus specify two ferroelastic domain states [{\bf R}_1] and [{\bf R}_2], respectively. The spontaneous strain in this example is a secondary order parameter and the ferroelastic domain states can therefore be called secondary domain states.

An algebraic version of the above consideration can be deduced from Table 3.4.2.1[link], where to each principal domain state (given in the second column) there corresponds a left coset of [F_1=2_xm_ym_z ] (presented in the first column). Thus to the partition of principal domain states into two subsets [\{{\bf S}_1,{\bf S}_2,{\bf S}_3,{\bf S}_4\} = \{{\bf S}_1,{\bf S}_2\}_{{\lambda}^{(1)}}\cup \{{\bf S}_3, {\bf S}_4\}_{{\lambda}^{(2)}}, \eqno(3.4.2.14) ]there corresponds, according to relation (3.4.2.9[link]), a partition of left cosets [\eqalignno{&4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}&\cr&\quad =\{\{2_xm_ym_z\} \cup \bar1\{2_xm_ym_z\}\} \cup \{2_{xy}\{2_xm_ym_z\} \cup 2_{x y}\{2_xm_ym_z\}\}&\cr &\quad =m_xm_ym_z \cup 2_{xy}\{m_xm_ym_z\}, &(3.4.2.15)} ]where we use the fact that the union of the first two left cosets of [2_xm_ym_z] is equal to the group [m_xm_ym_z]. This group is the stabilizer of the first ferroelastic domain state [{\bf R}_1], [I_G({\bf R}_1) = m_xm_ym_z]. Two left cosets of [m_xm_ym_z] correspond to two ferroelastic domain states, [{\bf R}_1] and [{\bf R}_2], respectively. Therefore, the number [n_a] of ferroelastic domain states is equal to the number of left cosets of [m_xm_ym_z] in [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ], i.e. to the index of [m_xm_ym_z] in [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ], [n_a =] [[4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] : [m_xm_ym_z]=|4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}| ] : [|m_xm_ym_z|=16:8 = 2], and the number [d_a] of principal domain states in one ferroelastic domain state is equal to the index of [2_xm_ym_z] in [m_xm_ym_z], i.e. [d_a =[m_xm_ym_z]: [2_xm_ym_z] =|m_xm_ym_z|] : [|2_xm_ym_z|=8:4=2].

A generalization of these considerations, performed in Section 3.2.3.3.5[link] (see especially Proposition 3.2.3.30[link] and Examples 3.2.3.10[link] and 3.2.3.33[link] ), yields the following main results.

Assume that [{\lambda}^{(1)}] is a secondary order parameter of a transition with symmetry descent [G \supset F_1]. Then the stabilizer [L_1] of this parameter [I_G({\lambda}^{(1)})\equiv L_1] is an intermediate group, [F_1 \subseteq I_G({\lambda}^{(1)})\equiv L_1 \subseteq G. \eqno(3.4.2.16) ]Lattices of subgroups in Figs. 3.1.3.1[link] and 3.1.3.2[link] are helpful in checking this condition.

The set of n principal domain states (the orbit [G{\bf S }_1 ]) splits into [n_{\lambda}] subsets[n_{\lambda}=[G:L_{1}]=|G|:|L_{1}|. \eqno(3.4.2.17)]

Each of these subsets consists of [d_{\lambda}] principal domain states,[d_{\lambda}=[L_1:F_{1}]=|L_1|:|F_{1}|. \eqno(3.4.2.18) ]The number [d_{\lambda}] is called a degeneracy of secondary domain states.

The product of numbers [n_{\lambda}] and [d_{\lambda}] is equal to the number n of principal domain states [see equation (3.2.3.26[link] )]: [n_{\lambda}d_{\lambda}=n. \eqno(3.4.2.19) ]

Principal domain states from each subset have the same value of the secondary order parameter [{\lambda}^{(j)}, j=1,2,\ldots,n_{\lambda}] and any two principal domain states from different subsets have different values of [{\lambda}^{(j)}]. A state of the crystal with a given value of the secondary order parameter [{\lambda}^{(j)}] will be called a secondary domain state [{\bf R}_j, j=1,2,\ldots,n_{\lambda}]. Equivalent terms are degenerate or compound domain state.

In a limiting case [L_1=F_1], the parameter [\lambda^{(1)}] is identical with the principal tensor parameter and there is no degeneracy, [d_{\lambda}=1].

Secondary domain states [{\bf R}_1,{\bf R}_2,\ldots,{\bf R}_j,\ldots,{\bf R}_{n_{\lambda}} ] are in a one-to-one correspondence with left cosets of [L_1] in the decomposition[G=h_1L_{1} \cup h_2L_{1} \cup\ldots\cup h_jL_{1} \cup\ldots\cup h_{n_{\lambda}}L_{1}, \eqno(3.4.2.20) ]therefore[{\bf R}_j=h_j{\bf R}_1,\quad j=1,2,\ldots,n_{\lambda}. \eqno(3.4.2.21) ]

Principal domain states of the first secondary domain state [{\bf R}_1 ] can be determined from the first principal domain state [{\bf S}_1 ]: [{\bf S}_k = p_k{\bf S}_1,\quad k=1,2,\ldots,d_{\lambda}, \eqno(3.4.2.22) ]where [p_k] is the representative of the kth left coset of [F_1] of the decomposition[L_{1}=p_1F_{1} \cup p_2F_{1} \cup \ldots \cup p_kF_{1} \cup \ldots \cup p_{d_{\lambda}}F_{1}. \eqno(3.4.2.23) ]

The partition of principal domain states according to a secondary order parameter offers a convenient labelling of principal domain states by two indices [j, k], where the first index j denotes the sequential number of the secondary domain state and the second index k gives the sequential number of the principal domain state within the jth secondary domain state [see equation (3.2.3.79[link] )]:[{\bf S}_{jk} = h_jp_k{\bf S}_{11}, \quad {\bf S}_{11}={\bf S}_1, \quad j=1,2,\ldots,n_{\lambda}, \quad k = 1,2,\ldots,d_{\lambda}, \eqno(3.4.2.24) ]where [h_j] and [p_k] are representatives of the decompositions (3.4.2.20[link]) and (3.4.2.23[link]), respectively.

The secondary order parameter [\lambda] can be identified with a principal order parameter of a phase transition with symmetry descent [G \subset L_1] (see Section 3.4.2.3[link]). The concept of secondary domain states enables one to define domain states that are characterized by a certain spontaneous property. We present the three most significant cases of such ferroic domain states.

3.4.2.2.1. Ferroelastic domain state

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The distinction ferroelastic–non-ferroelastic is a basic division in domain structures. Ferroelastic transitions are ferroic transitions involving a spontaneous distortion of the crystal lattice that entails a change of shape of the crystallographic or conventional unit cell (Wadhawan, 2000[link]). Such a transformation is accompanied by a change in the number of independent nonzero components of a symmetric second-rank tensor [u ] that describes spontaneous strain.

In discussing ferroelastic and non-ferroelastic domain structures, the concepts of crystal family and holohedry of a point group are useful (IT A , 2005[link]). Crystallographic point groups (and space groups as well) can be divided into seven crystal systems and six crystal families (see Table 3.4.2.2[link]). A symmetry descent within a crystal family does not entail a qualitative change of the spontaneous strain – the number of independent nonzero tensor components of the strain tensor u remains unchanged.

Table 3.4.2.2| top | pdf |
Crystal systems, holohedries, crystal families and number of spontaneous strain components

Point group MCrystal systemHolohedry HolMSpontaneous strain componentsCrystal family FamM
IndependentNonzero
[23], [m\bar3], [432], [\bar43m], [m\bar3m] Cubic [m\bar3m] 1 3 Cubic
[6], [\bar6], [6/m], [622], [6mm], [\bar62m], [6/mmmm] Hexagonal [6/mmm] 2 3 Hexagonal
[3], [\bar3], [32], [3m], [\bar3m] Trigonal [\bar3m] 2 3
[4], [\bar4], [4/m], [422], [4mm], [\bar42m], [4/mmm] Tetragonal [4/mmm] 2 3 Tetragonal
[222], [mm2], [mmm] Orthorhombic [mmm] 3 3 Orthorhombic
[2], m, [2/m] Monoclinic [2/m] 4 4 Monoclinic
[1], [\bar1] Triclinic [\bar1] 6 6 Triclinic

We shall denote the crystal family of a group M by the symbol FamM. Then a simple criterion for a ferroic phase transition with symmetry descent [G \subset F] to be a non-ferroelastic phase transition is[F \subset G, \quad{\rm Fam}F ={\rm Fam}G. \eqno(3.4.2.25) ]

A necessary and sufficient condition for a ferroelastic phase transition is[F \subset G, \quad{\rm Fam}F \neq {\rm Fam}G. \eqno(3.4.2.26) ]

A ferroelastic domain state [{\bf R}_i] is defined as a state with a homogeneous spontaneous strain [u^{(i)}]. [We drop the suffix `s' or `(s)' if the serial number of the domain state is given as the superscript [(i)]. The definition of spontaneous strain is given in Section 3.4.3.6.1[link].] Different ferroelastic domain states differ in spontaneous strain. The symmetry of a ferroelastic domain state Ri is specified by the stabilizer [I_G(u^{(i)}) ] of the spontaneous strain [u^{(i)}] of the principal domain state [{\bf S}_i] [see (3.4.2.16[link])]. This stabilizer, which we shall denote by [A_i], can be expressed as an intersection of the parent group G and the holohedry of group [F_i], which we shall denote Hol[F_i] (see Table 3.4.2.2[link]):[A_i \equiv I_G(u^{(i)})=G\cap {\rm Hol}F_i. \eqno(3.4.2.27) ]This equation indicates that the ferroelastic domain state Ri has a prominent single-domain orientation. Further on, the term `ferroelastic domain state' will mean a `ferroelastic domain state in single-domain orientation'.

In our illustrative example, [\eqalign{A_1 &= I_{4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}}(u_{11}-u_{22})\cr &= {\rm Hol}(2_xm_ym_z)\cap m4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}\cr &=m_xm_ym_z \cap 4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}= m_xm_ym_z.\cr} ]

The number [n_a] of ferroelastic domain states is given by[n_a = [G:A_1] = |G|:|A_1|. \eqno(3.4.2.28)]In our example, [n_a=|4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}|:|m_xm_ym_z|=16:8=2]. In Table 3.4.2.7[link], last column, the number [n_a] of ferroelastic domain states is given for all possible ferroic phase transitions.

The number [d_a] of principal domain states compatible with one ferroelastic domain state (degeneracy of ferroelastic domain states) is given by[d_a=[A_1:F_1]=|A_1|:|F_1|. \eqno(3.4.2.29) ]In our example, [d_a=|m_xm_ym_z|:|2_xm_ym_z|=8:4=2], i.e. two non-ferroelastic principal domain states are compatible with each of the two ferroelastic domain states (cf. Fig. 3.4.2.2[link]).

The product of [n_a] and [d_a] is equal to the number n of all principal domain states [see equation (3.4.2.19[link])],[n_ad_a=[G:A_1][A_1:F_1]=[G:F_1]=n. \eqno(3.4.2.30) ]The number [d_a] of principal domain states in one ferroelastic domain state can be calculated for all ferroic phase transitions from the ratio of numbers n and [n_a] that are given in Table 3.4.2.7[link].

According to Aizu (1969[link]), we can recognize three possible cases:

  • (i) Full ferroelastics: All principal domain states differ in spontaneous strain. In this case, [n_a=n], i.e. [A_1=F_1], ferroelastic domain states are identical with principal domain states.

  • (ii) Partial ferroelastics: Some but not all principal domain states differ in spontaneous strain. A necessary and sufficient condition is [1 \,\lt\, n_a \,\lt\, n], or, equivalently, [F_1 \subset A_1 \subset G]. In this case, ferroelastic domain states are degenerate secondary domain states with degeneracy [n>d_a=|A_1|:|F_1|>1 ]. In this case, the phase transition [G\supset F_1] can also be classified as an improper ferro­elastic one (see Section 3.1.3.2[link] ).

  • (iii) Non-ferroelastics: All principal domain states have the same spontaneous strain. The criterion is [n_a=1 ], i.e. [A_1=G].

A similar classification for ferroelectric domain states is given below. Both classifications are summarized in Table 3.4.2.3[link].

Table 3.4.2.3| top | pdf |
Aizu's classification of ferroic phases

[n_a] is the number of ferroelastic domain states, [n_e] is the number of ferroelectric domain states and [n_f] is the number of ferroic domain states.

FerroelasticFerroelectric
FullyPartiallyNon-ferroelasticFullyPartiallyNon-ferroelectric
[n_a=n] [1 \,\lt\, n_a \,\lt\, n] [n_a=1 ] [n_e=n] [1 \,\lt\, n_e \,\lt\, n] [n_e=0], 1

Example 3.4.2.1. Domain states in leucite. Leucite (KAlSi2O6) (see e.g. Hatch et al., 1990[link]) undergoes at about 938 K a ferro­elastic phase transition from cubic symmetry [G=m\bar3m] to tetragonal symmetry [L=4/mmm]. This phase can appear in [|G=m\bar3m|:|4/mmm|=3] single-domain states, which we denote [{\bf R}_1], [{\bf R}_2], [{\bf R}_3 ]. The symmetry group of the first domain state [{\bf R}_1] is [L_1=4_x/m_xm_ym_z]. This group equals the stabilizer [I_G(u^{(1)}) ] of the spontaneous strain [u^{(1)}] of [{\bf R}_1] since Hol([4_x/m_xm_ym_z)] [=4_x/m_xm_ym_z] (see Table 3.4.2.2[link]), hence this phase is a full ferroelastic one.

At about 903 K, another phase transition reduces the symmetry [4/mmm] to [F= 4/m]. Let us suppose that this transition has taken place in a domain state [{\bf R}_1] with symmetry [L_1=4_x/m_xm_ym_z]; then the room-temperature ferroic phase has symmetry [F_1=4_x/m_x]. The [4_x/m_xm_ym_z \supset 4_x/m_x] phase transition is a non-ferroelastic one [[{\rm Hol}(4_x/m_x) =] [{\rm Hol}(4_x/m_xm_ym_z) =] [4_x/m_xm_ym_z]] with [|4_x/m_xm_ym_z|:|4_x/m_x|=8:4=2] non-ferro­elastic domain states, which we denote [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_2]. Similar considerations performed with initial domain states R2 and R3 generate another two couples of principal domain states [{\bf S}_3 ], [{\bf S}_4] and [{\bf S}_5], [{\bf S}_6], respectively. Thus the room-temperature phase is a partially ferroelastic phase with three degenerate ferroelastic domain states, each of which can contain two principal domain states. Both ferroelastic domains and non-ferroelastic domains within each ferroelastic domain have been observed [see Fig. 3.3.10.13[link] in Chapter 3.3[link] , Palmer et al. (1988[link]) and Putnis (1992)[link]].

3.4.2.2.2. Ferroelectric domain states

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Ferroelectric domain states are defined as states with a homogeneous spontaneous polarization; different ferroelectric domain states differ in the direction of the spontaneous polarization. Ferroelectric domain states are specified by the stabilizer [I_G({\rm P}_s^{(1)})] of the spontaneous polarization [{\rm P}_s^{(1)}] in the first principal domain state [{\bf S}_1] [see equation (3.4.2.16[link])]:[F_1\subseteq C_1 \equiv I_G({\rm P}_s^{(1)}) \subseteq G. \eqno(3.4.2.31) ]The stabilizer [C_1] is one of ten polar groups: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, m, [mm2], [3m], [4mm ], [6mm]. Since [F_1] must be a polar group too, it is simple to find the stabilizer [C_1] fulfilling relation (3.4.2.31[link]).

The number [n_e] of ferroelectric domain states is given by[n_e=[G:C_1]=|G|:|C_1|. \eqno(3.4.2.32)]If the polar group [C_1] does not exist, we put [n_e=0]. The number [n_e] of ferroelectric domain states is given for all ferroic phase transitions in the eighth column of Table 3.4.2.7[link].

The number [d_a] of principal domain states compatible with one ferroelectric domain state (degeneracy of ferroelectric domain states) is given by[d_e=[C_1:F_1]=|C_1|:|F_1|. \eqno(3.4.2.33) ]

The product of [n_e] and [d_e] is equal to the number n of all principal domain states [see equation (3.4.2.19[link])],[n_ed_e=n. \eqno(3.4.2.34)]The degeneracy [d_e] of ferroelectric domain states can be calculated for all ferroic phase transitions from the ratio of the numbers n and [n_e] that are given in Table 3.4.2.7[link].

According to Aizu (1969[link], 1970a[link]), we can again recognize three possible cases (see also Table 3.4.2.3[link]):

  • (i) Full ferroelectrics: All principal domain states differ in spontaneous polarization. In this case, [n_e=n], i.e. [C_1=F_1], ferroelectric domain states are identical with principal domain states.

  • (ii) Partial ferroelectrics: Some but not all principal domain states differ in spontaneous polarization. A necessary and sufficient condition is [1\,\lt\, n_e\,\lt \,n], or equivalently, [F_1 \subset C_1 \subset G]. Ferroelectric domain states are degenerate secondary domain states with degeneracy [n\,\gt \,d_e\,\gt\, 1]. In this case, the phase transition [G\supset F_1] can be classified as an improper ferroelectric one (see Section 3.1.3.2[link] ).

  • (iii) Non-ferroelectrics: No principal domain states differ in spontaneous polarization. There are two possible cases: (a) The parent phase is polar; then [C_1=G] and [n_e=1 ]. (b) The parent phase is non-polar; in this case a polar stabilizer [C_1] does not exist, then we put [n_e=0].

The classification of full-, partial- and non-ferroelectrics and ferroelastics is given for all Aizu's species in Aizu (1970a[link]).

This classification for all symmetry descents is readily available from the numbers n, [n_a], [n_e] in Table 3.4.2.7[link]. One can conclude that partial ferroelectrics are rather rare.

Example 3.4.2.3. Domain structure in tetragonal perovskites. Some perovskites (e.g. barium titanate, BaTiO3) undergo a phase transition from the cubic parent phase with [G=m\bar3m] to a tetragonal ferroelectric phase with symmetry [F_1=4_xm_ym_z]. The stabilizer [A_1 =] Hol[(4_xm_ym_z)\cap m3m =] [m_xm_ym_z]. There are [n_a =] [ |m3m|: |m_xm_ym_z|  =] 3 ferroelastic domain states each compatible with [d_a =] [|m_xm_ym_z|:|4_xm_ym_z|  =] 2 principal ferroelectric domain states that are related e.g. by inversion [\bar1], i.e. spontaneous polarization is antiparallel in two principal domain states within one ferroelastic domain state.

A similar situation, i.e. two non-ferroelastic domain states with antiparallel spontaneous polarization compatible with one ferroelastic domain state, occurs in perovskites in the trigonal ferroic phase with symmetry [F=3m] and in the orthorhombic ferroic phase with symmetry [F_1=m_{x\bar y}2_{xy}m_z ].

Many other examples are discussed by Newnham (1974[link], 1975[link]), Newnham & Cross (1974a[link],b[link]), and Newnham & Skinner (1976[link]).

3.4.2.2.3. Domain states with the same stabilizer

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In our illustrative example (see Fig. 3.4.2.2[link]), we have seen that two domain states [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_2] have the same symmetry group (stabilizer) [2_xm_ym_z]. In general, the condition `to have the same stabilizer (symmetry group)' divides the set of n principal domain states into equivalence classes. As shown in Section 3.2.3.3[link] , the role of an intermediate group [L_1] is played in this case by the normalizer [N_G(F_1)] of the symmetry group [F_1] of the first domain state [{\bf S}_1]. The number [d_F] of domain states with the same symmetry group is given by [see Example 3.2.3.34[link] in Section 3.2.3.3.5[link] and equation (3.2.3.95[link] )], [d_F=[N_G(F_1):F_1]=|N_G(F_1)|:|F_1|.\eqno(3.4.2.35) ]The number [n_F] of subgroups that are conjugate under G to [F_1] can be calculated from the formula [see equation (3.2.3.96[link] )][n_F=[G:N_G(F_1)]=|G|:|N_G(F_1)|.\eqno(3.4.2.36) ]The product of [n_F] and [d_F] is equal to the number n of ferroic domain states, [n=n_Fd_F.\eqno(3.4.2.37) ]

The normalizer [N_G(F_1)] enables one not only to determine which domain states have the symmetry [F_1] but also to calculate all subgroups that are conjugate under G to [F_1] (see Examples 3.2.3.22[link] , 3.2.3.29[link] and 3.2.3.34[link] in Section 3.2.3.3[link] ).

Normalizers [N_G(F_1)] and the number [d_F] of principal domain states with the same symmetry are given in Table 3.4.2.7[link] for all symmetry descents [G \supset F_1]. The number [n_F] of subgroups conjugate to [F_1] is given by [n_F=n:d_F ].

All these results obtained for point-group symmetry descents can be easily generalized to microscopic domain states and space-group symmetry descents (see Section 3.4.2.5[link]).

3.4.2.3. Property tensors associated with ferroic domain states

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In the preceding section we derived relations for domain states without considering their specific physical properties. Basic formulae for the number of principal and secondary domain states [see equations (3.4.2.11[link]) and (3.4.2.17[link]), respectively] and the transformation properties of these domain states [equations (3.4.2.12[link]) and (3.4.2.21[link]), respectively] follow immediately from the symmetry groups G, [F_1] of the parent and ferroic phases, respectively. Now we shall examine which components of property tensors specify principal and secondary domain states and how these tensor components change in different domain states.

A property tensor [\tau] is specified by its components. The number [m_i(\tau)] of independent tensor components of a certain tensor [\tau ] depends on the point-group symmetry G of the crystal (see Chapter 1.1[link] ). The number [m_c(\tau)] of nonzero Cartesian (rectangular) components depends on the orientation of the crystal in the reference Cartesian coordinate system and is equal to, or greater than, the number [m_i(\tau) ] of independent tensor components; this number [m_i(\tau)] is independent of orientation. Then there are [m_c(\tau)-m_i(\tau)] linear relations between Cartesian tensor components. The difference [m_c(\tau)-m_i(\tau) ] is minimal for a `standard' orientation, in which symmetry axes of the crystal are, if possible, parallel to the axes of the reference coordinate system [for more on this choice, see Nye (1985[link]) Appendix B, Sirotin & Shaskolskaya (1982[link]), Shuvalov (1988[link]) and IEEE Standards on Piezoelectricity (1987[link])]. Even in this standard orientation, only for point groups of triclinic, monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal systems is the number [m_c(\tau)] of nonzero Cartesian components of each property tensor equal to the number [m_i(\tau) ] of independent tensor components, i.e. all Cartesian tensor components are independent. For all other point groups [m_c(\tau)-m_i(\tau)\,\gt\,0 ], i.e. there are always relations between some Cartesian tensor components. One can verify this statement for the strain tensor in Table 3.4.2.2[link].

The relations between Cartesian tensor components can be removed when one uses covariant tensor components. [Kopský (1979[link]); see also the manual of the the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and Kopský (2001[link]). An analogous decomposition of Cartesian tensors into irreducible parts has been performed by Jerphagnon et al. (1978[link]).] Covariant tensor components are linear combinations of Cartesian tensor components that transform according to irreducible matrix representations [D^{(\alpha)}(G)] of the group G of the crystal (i.e. they form a basis of irreducible representations of G; for irreducible representations see Chapter 1.2[link] ). The number of covariant tensor components equals the number of independent components of the tensor [\tau].

The advantage of expressing property tensors by covariant tensor components becomes obvious when one considers a change of a property tensor at a ferroic phase transition. A symmetry descent [G\supset F_1] is accompanied by the preservation of, or an increase of, the number of independent Cartesian tensor components. The latter possibility can manifest itself either by the appearance of morphic Cartesian tensor components in the low-symmetry phase or by such changes of nonzero Cartesian components that break some relations between tensor components in the high-symmetry phase. This is seen in our illustrative example of the strain tensor u. In the high-symmetry phase with [G=4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], the strain tensor has two independent components and three nonzero components: [u_{11}\neq u_{22}=u_{33}]. In the low-symmetry phase with [F_1=2_xm_ym_z], there are three independent and three nonzero components: [u_{11}\neq u_{22}\neq u_{33}], i.e. the equation [u_{22}=u_{33}] does not hold in the parent phase. This change cannot be expressed by a single Cartesian morphic component.

Since there are no relations between covariant tensor components, any change of tensor components at a symmetry descent can be expressed by morphic covariant tensor components, which are zero in the parent phase and nonzero in the ferroic phase. In our example, the covariant tensor component of the spontaneous strain is [u_{11}-u_{22}], which is a morphic component since [u_{11}-u_{22}=0 ] for the symmetry [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] but [u_{11}-u_{22}\neq 0 ] for symmetry [2_xm_ym_z].

Tensorial covariants are defined in an exact way in the manual of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and in Kopský (2001[link]). Here we give only a brief account of this notion. Consider a crystal with symmetry G and a property tensor [\tau] with [n_{\tau} ] independent tensor components. Let [D^{(\alpha)}(G)] be a [d_{\alpha}]-dimensional physically irreducible matrix representation of G. The [D^{(\alpha)}_{a}(G)] covariant of [\tau] consists of the following [d_{\alpha}] covariant tensor components: [\tau^{\alpha}_a =] [(\tau^{\alpha}_{ a,1}, \tau^{\alpha}_{a,2},\ldots,\tau^{\alpha}_{a,d_{\alpha}}) ], where a = [1, 2, \ldots] and [m=n_{\tau}/d_{\alpha}] numbers different [d_{\alpha}]-tuples formed from [n_{\tau}] components of [\tau]. These covariant tensor components are linear combinations of Cartesian components of [\tau] that transform as so-called typical variables of the matrix representation [D^{(\alpha)}(G)], i.e. the transformation properties under operations [g\in G] of covariant tensor components are expressed by matrices [D^{\alpha}(g)].

The relation between two presentations of the tensor [\tau] is provided by conversion equations, which express Cartesian tensor components as linear combinations of covariant tensor components and vice versa [for details see the manual and Appendix E of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and Kopský (2001[link])].

Tensorial covariants for all non-equivalent physically irreducible matrix representations of crystallographic point groups and all important property tensors up to rank four are listed in the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and in Kopský (2001[link]). Thus, for example, in Table D of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1, or in Kopský (2001[link]) p. 5, one finds for the two-dimensional irreducible representation E of group 422 the following tensorial covariants: [(P_1,P_2)], [(d_{11},d_{22})], [(d_{12},d_{21}) ], [(d_{13}, d_{23})], [(d_{26},d_{16})], [(d_{35},d_{34}) ].

Let us denote by [\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a] a tensorial covariant of [\tau] in the first single-domain state [{\bf S}_1]. A crucial role in the analysis is played by the stabilizer [I_G(\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a) ] of these covariants, i.e. all operations of the parent group G that leave [\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a] invariant. There are three possible cases:

  • (1) If[I_G(\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a)=G, \eqno(3.4.2.38) ]then all components of [\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a] that are nonzero in the parent phase are also nonzero in the ferroic phase. All these components are the same in all principal domain states. For important property tensors and for all point groups G, these covariant tensor components are listed in the main tables of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and in Kopský (2001[link]). The corresponding Cartesian tensor components are available in Section 1.1.4[link] and in standard textbooks (e.g. Nye, 1985[link]; Sirotin & Shaskolskaya, 1982[link]).

  • (2) If [I_G(\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a)=F_1, \eqno(3.4.2.39) ]then any of [m=n_{\tau}/d_{\alpha}] tensorial covariants [\tau^{(\alpha)}_a], [a=1,2,\ldots,m], is a possible principal tensor parameter [\varphi^{(1)}] of the transition [G\supset F_1]. Any two of [n_f=|G|:|F_1|] principal domain states differ in some, or all, components of these covariants. The principal tensor parameter [\varphi] plays a similar symmetric (but generally not thermodynamic) role as the order parameter [\eta] does in the Landau theory. Only for equitranslational phase transitions is one of the principal tensor parameters (that with the temperature-dependent coefficient) identical with the primary order parameter of the Landau theory (see Section 3.1.3[link] ).

  • (3) If [I_G(\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a)=L_1, \ \ F_1\subset L_1\subset G, \eqno(3.4.2.40) ]then [\tau^{(\alpha)(1)}_a] represents the secondary tensor parameter [\lambda] (see Section 3.1.3.2[link] ). There exist [n_{\lambda}=|G|:|L_1|] secondary domain states [{\bf R}_1,] [{\bf R}_2,] [\ldots,] [{\bf R}_{n_{\lambda}}] that differ in [\lambda]. Unlike in the two preceding cases (1[link]) and (2[link]), several intermediate groups [L_1,M_2,\ldots ] (with secondary tensor parameters [\lambda, \mu,\ldots]) that fulfil condition (3.4.2.40[link]) can exist.

Now we shall indicate how one can find particular property tensors that fulfil conditions (3.4.2.39[link]) or (3.4.2.40[link]). The solution of this group-theoretical task consists of three steps:

  • (i) For a given point-group symmetry descent [G\supset F_1], or [G\supset L_1], one finds the representation [{\Gamma}_{\eta}] that specifies the transformation properties of the principal, or secondary, tensor parameter, which plays the role of the order parameters in a continuum description. This task is called an inverse Landau problem (see Section 3.1.3[link] for more details). The solution of this problem is available in Tables 3.4.2.7[link] and 3.1.3.1[link] , in the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and in Kopský (2001[link]), where the letters A, B signify one-dimensional irreducible representations, and letters E and T two- and three-dimensional ones. The dimensionality [d_{\eta}], or [d_{\lambda}], of the representation [{\Gamma}_{\eta} ], or [{\Gamma}_{\lambda}], specifies the maximal number of independent components of the principal, or secondary, tensor parameter [\varphi], or [\lambda], respectively. `Reducible' indicates that [{\Gamma}_{\eta} ] is a reducible representation.

  • (ii) In Table 3.1.3.1[link] one finds in the second column, for a given G and [{\Gamma}_{\eta}], or [\Gamma_{\lambda}] (first column), the standard variables designating in a standardized way the covariant tensor components of the principal, or secondary, tensor parameters (for more details see Section 3.1.3.1[link] and the manual of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1). For two- and three-dimensional irreducible representations, this column contains relations that restrict the values of the components and thus reduce the number of independent components.

  • (iii) The association of covariant tensor components of property tensors with standard variables is tabulated for all irreducible representations in an abridged version in Table 3.1.3.1[link] , in the column headed Principal tensor parameters, and in full in the main table of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and of Kopský (2001[link]).

Phase transitions associated with reducible representations are treated in detail only in the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and in Kopský (2001[link]). Fortunately, these phase transitions occur rarely in nature.

A rich variety of observed structural phase transitions can be found in Tomaszewski (1992[link]). This database lists 3446 phase transitions in 2242 crystalline materials.

Example 3.4.2.4. Morphic tensor components associated with [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}\supset 2_xm_ym_z ] symmetry descent 

  • (1) Principal tensor parameters [\varphi^{(1)}]. The representation [{\Gamma}_{\eta} ] that specifies the transformation properties of the principal tensor parameter [\varphi^{(1)}] (and for equitranslational phase transitions also the primary order parameter [\eta^{(1)}]) can be found in the first column of Table 3.1.3.1[link] for [G=4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] and [F_1=2_xm_ym_z]; the R-irreducible representation (R-irep) [\Gamma_{\eta}=E_u]. Therefore, the principal tensor parameter [\varphi^{(1)}] (or the primary order parameter [\eta^{(1)} ]) has two components [(\varphi_1^{(1)},\varphi_2^{(1)})] [or [(\eta_1^{(1)},\eta_2^{(1)}])]. The standard variables are in the second column: [({\sf x}_1^{-}, 0)]. This means that only the first component [\varphi^{(1)}_1] (or [\eta^{(1)}_1]) is nonzero. In the column Principal tensor parameters, one finds that [\varphi^{(1)}_1=P_1] (or [\eta^{(1)}_1=P_1]), i.e. one principal tensor parameter is spontaneous polarization and the spontaneous polarization in the first domain state [{\bf S}_1] is [P_{(s)}=(P,00)]. Other principal tensor parameters can be found in the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 or in Kopský (2001[link]), p. 185: [(g_4,0), ] [(d_{11},0),] [(d_{12},0),] [(d_{13},0),] [(d_{26},0),] [(d_{35},0)] (the physical meaning of the components is explained in Table 3.4.3.5[link]).

  • (2) Secondary tensor parameters [\lambda^{(1)}, \mu^{(1)},\ldots ].

    In the group lattice (group–subgroup chains) in Fig. 3.1.3.1[link] , one finds that the only intermediate group between [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] and [2_xm_ym_z] is [L_1=m_xm_ym_z]. In the same table of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 or in Kopský (2001[link]), one finds [\Gamma_{\lambda}=B_{1g} ] and the following one-dimensional secondary tensor parameters: [u_1-u_2;] [A_{14}+A_{25},] [A_{36};] [s_{11}-s_{22}, ] [s_{13}-s_{23},] [s_{44}-s_{55};] [Q_{11}-Q_{22},] [Q_{12}-Q_{21},] [Q_{13}-Q_{23},] [Q_{31}-Q_{32},] [Q_{44}-Q_{55} ].

The use of covariant tensor components has two practical advantages:

Firstly, the change of tensor components at a ferroic phase transition is completely described by the appearance of new nonzero covariant tensor components. If needed, Cartesian tensor components corresponding to covariant components can be calculated by means of conversion equations, which express Cartesian tensor components as linear combinations of covariant tensor components [for details on tensor covariants and conversion equations see the manual and Appendix E of the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and Kopský (2001[link])].

Secondly, calculation of property tensors in various domain states is substantially simplified: transformations of Cartesian tensor components, which are rather involved for higher-rank tensors, are replaced by a simpler transformation of covariant tensor components by matrices [D^{(\eta)}] of the matrix representation of [\Gamma_{\eta}], or of [\Gamma_{\lambda}] [see again the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 and Kopský (2001[link])]. The determination of the tensor properties of all domain states is discussed in full in the book by Kopský (1982[link]).

The relations between morphic properties, tensor parameters, order parameters and names of domain states are compared in Table 3.4.2.4[link], from which it is seen that what matters in distinguishing different domain states is the stabilizer of the spontaneous (morphic) property, where physically different parameters may possess a common stabilizer. The latter thermodynamic division, based on conditions of the stability, is finer than the former division, which is based on symmetry only. This difference manifests itself, for example, in the fact that two physically different tensor parameters, such as the principal order parameter [\varphi] and a `similar' order parameter [\sigma ], transform according to different representations [\Gamma_{\varphi} ] and [\Gamma_{\sigma}] but have the same stabilizer [F_1] (such symmetry descents are listed in Table 3.1.3.2[link] ) and possess common domain states. This `degeneracy' of domain states can be even more pronounced in the microscopic description, where the same stabilizer [{\cal F}_1] and therefore a common basic domain state can be shared by three physically different order parameters: a primary order parameter [\eta] (the order parameter, components of which form a quadratic invariant with a temperature-dependent coefficient in the free energy), a pseudoproper order parameter [\zeta] that transforms according to the same representation [\Gamma_{\eta}] as the primary order parameter but has a temperature coefficient that is not as strongly temperature-dependent as the primary order parameter, and a `similar' order parameter [\kappa] with a representation [\Gamma_{\kappa}] different from [\Gamma_{\eta}].

Table 3.4.2.4| top | pdf |
Morphic properties, tensor parameters, order parameters, stabilizers and domain states

Morphic propertyTensor or order parameter[\Gamma ]Stabilizer of morphic propertyDomain states
Principal tensor parameter [\varphi^{\,(1)}] [{\Gamma}_{\varphi} ] [F_1] Principal
`Similar principal' tensor parameter [\sigma^{\,(1)}] [{\Gamma}_{\sigma} ]
Secondary tensor parameter [\lambda^{(1)}] [{\Gamma}_{\lambda} ] [L_1, \ F_1\subset L_1\subset G] Secondary ferroic
Spontaneous polarization [{\bf P}_{(s)}] [{\Gamma}_{{\bf P}_{(s)}} ] [C_1=I_G(P_{(s)}^{\,(1)})] Ferroelectric
Spontaneous strain [u_{(s)}] [{\Gamma}_{u_{(s)}}] [A_1={\rm Hol}F_1\cap G] Ferroelastic
Primary order parameter [\eta^{(1)}] [\Gamma_{\eta}] [{\cal F}_1] Primary, basic, microscopic
Pseudoproper order parameter [\zeta^{\,(1)}]
`Similar' order parameter [\kappa^{\,(1)}] [{\Gamma}_{\kappa} ]
Secondary order parameter [{\tau}^{(1)}] [{\Gamma}_{\tau} ] [{\cal M}_1, {\cal F}_1\subset {\cal M}_1\subset {\cal G} ] Secondary microscopic

3.4.2.4. Synoptic table of ferroic transitions and domain states

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The considerations of this and all following sections can be applied to any phase transition with point-group symmetry descent [G\supset F]. All such non-magnetic crystallographically non-equivalent symmetry descents are listed in Table 3.4.2.7[link] together with some other data associated with symmetry reduction at a ferroic phase transition. These symmetry descents can also be traced in lattices of point groups, which are displayed in Figs. 3.1.3.1[link] and 3.1.3.2[link] .

The symmetry descents [G\supset F_1] listed in Table 3.4.2.7[link] are analogous to Aizu's `species' (Aizu, 1970a[link]), in which the symbol F stands for the symbol [\supset ] in our symmetry descent, and the orientation of symmetry elements of the group [F_1] with respect to G is specified by letters p, s, ps, pp etc.

As we have already stated, any systematic analysis of domain structures requires an unambiguous specification of the orientation and location of symmetry elements in space. Moreover, in a continuum approach, the description of crystal properties is performed in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, which differs in hexagonal and trigonal crystals from the crystallographic coordinate system common in crystallography. Last but not least, a ready-to-use and user-friendly presentation calls for symbols that are explicit and concise.

To meet these requirements, we use in this chapter, in Section 3.1.3[link] and in the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 a symbolism in which the orientations of crystallographic elements and operations are expressed by means of suffixes related to a reference Cartesian coordinate system. The relation of this reference Cartesian coordinate system – called a crystallophysical coordinate system – to the usual crystallographic coordinate system is a matter of convention. We adhere to the generally accepted rules [see Nye (1985[link]) Appendix B, Sirotin & Shaskolskaya (1982[link]), Shuvalov (1988[link]), and IEEE Standards on Piezoelectricity, 1987[link]].

We list all symbols of crystallographic symmetry operations and a comparison of these symbols with other notations in Tables 3.4.2.5[link] and 3.4.2.6[link] and in Figs. 3.4.2.3[link] and 3.4.2.4[link].

Table 3.4.2.5| top | pdf |
Symbols of symmetry operations of the point group [m\bar 3m ]

Standard: symbols used in Section 3.1.3[link] , in the present chapter and in the software; all symbols refer to the cubic crystallographic (Cartesian) basis, [p\equiv[111]] (all [{\underline{p}}]ositive), [q\equiv[\bar1\bar11], \ r\equiv [1\bar1\bar1], \ s\equiv [\bar11\bar1] ]. BC: Bradley & Cracknell (1972[link]). AH: Altmann & Herzig (1994[link]). IT A: IT A (2005[link]). Jones: Jones' faithful representation symbols express the action of a symmetry operation on a vector [(xyz)] (see e.g. Bradley & Cracknell, 1972[link]).

StandardBCAHIT AJonesStandardBCAHIT AJones
1 or e E E 1 [x,y,z] [\bar{1}] or i I i [{\bar 1}]   [0,0,0] [\bar{x},\bar{y},\bar{z}]
[2_{z}] [C_{2z}] [C_{2z}] 2   [0,0,z] [{\bar x},{\bar y},z] [m_{z}] [\sigma_{z}] [\sigma_{z}] m   [x,y,0 ] [x,y,{\bar z}]
[2_{x}] [C_{2x}] [C_{2x}] 2   [x,0,0] [x,{\bar {y},{\bar z}}] [m_{x}] [\sigma_{x}] [\sigma_{x}] m   [0,y,z ] [{\bar x},y,z]
[2_{y}] [C_{2y}] [C_{2y}] 2   [0,y,0] [{\bar x},y,{\bar z}] [m_{y}] [\sigma_{y}] [\sigma_{y}] m   [x,0,z ] [x,{\bar y},z]
[2_{xy}] [C_{2a}] [C_{2a}^{\prime}] 2   [x,x,0] [y,x,{\bar z}] [m_{xy}] [\sigma_{da}] [\sigma_{d1}] m   [x,{\bar x},z ] [{\bar y},{\bar x},z]
[2_{x{\bar y}}] [C_{2b}] [C_{2b}^{\prime}] 2   [x,{\bar x},0 ] [{\bar y},{\bar x},{\bar z}] [m_{x{\bar y}}] [\sigma_{db}] [\sigma_{d2}] m   [x,x,z ] [y,x,z]
[2_{zx}] [C_{2c}] [C_{2c}^{\prime}] 2   [x,0,x,] [z,{\bar y},x] [m_{zx}] [\sigma_{dc}] [\sigma_{d3}] m   [{\bar x},y,x, ] [{\bar z},y,{\bar x}]
[2_{z{\bar x}}] [C_{2e}] [C_{2e}^{\prime}] 2   [{\bar x},0,x ] [{\bar z},{\bar y},{\bar x}] [m_{z{\bar x}}] [\sigma_{de}] [\sigma_{d5}] m   [x,y,x ] [z,y,x]
[2_{yz}] [C_{2d}] [C_{2d}^{\prime}] 2   [0,y,y] [{\bar x},z,y] [m_{yz}] [\sigma_{dd}] [\sigma_{d4}] m   [x,y,{\bar y} ] [x,{\bar z},{\bar y}]
[2_{y{\bar z}}] [C_{2f}] [C_{2f}^{\prime}] [2]   [0,y,{\bar y} ] [{\bar x},{\bar z},{\bar y}] [m_{y{\bar z}}] [\sigma_{df}] [\sigma_{d6}] m   [x,y,y ] [x,z,y]
[3_{p}] [C_{31}^{+}] [C_{31}^{+}] [3^{+}]   [x,x,x] [z,x,y] [{\bar 3}_{p}] [S_{61}^{-}] [S_{61}^{-}] [{\bar 3}^{+}]   [x,x,x] [{\bar z},{\bar x},{\bar y}]
[3_{q}] [C_{32}^{+}] [C_{32}^{+}] [3^{+}]   [{\bar x},{\bar x},x] [{\bar z},x,{\bar y}] [{\bar 3}_{q}] [S_{62}^{-}] [S_{62}^{-}] [{\bar 3}^{+}]   [{\bar x},{\bar x},x] [z,{\bar x},y]
[3_{r}] [C_{33}^{+}] [C_{33}^{+}] [3^{+}]   [x,{\bar x},{\bar x}] [{\bar z},{\bar x},y] [{\bar 3}_{r}] [S_{63}^{-}] [S_{63}^{-}] [{\bar 3}^{+}]   [x,{\bar x},{\bar x}] [z,x,{\bar y}]
[3_{s}] [C_{34}^{+}] [C_{34}^{+}] [3^{+}]   [{\bar x},x,{\bar x}] [z,{\bar x},{\bar y}] [{\bar 3}_{s}] [S_{64}^{-}] [S_{64}^{-}] [{\bar 3}^{+}]   [{\bar x},x,{\bar x}] [{\bar z},x,y]
[3_{p}^{2}] [C_{31}^{-}] [C_{31}^{-}] [3^{-}]   [x,x,x] [y,z,x] [{\bar 3}_{p}^{5}] [S_{61}^{+}] [S_{61}^{+}] [{\bar 3}^{-}]   [x,x,x] [{\bar y},{\bar z},{\bar x}]
[3_{q}^{2}] [C_{32}^{-}] [C_{32}^{-}] [3^{-}]   [{\bar x},{\bar x},x] [y,{\bar z},{\bar x}] [{\bar 3}_{q}^{5}] [S_{62}^{+}] [S_{62}^{+}] [{\bar 3}^{-}]   [{\bar x},{\bar x},x] [{\bar y},z,x]
[3_{r}^{2}] [C_{33}^{-}] [C_{33}^{-}] [3^{-}]   [x,{\bar x},{\bar x}] [{\bar y},z,{\bar x}] [{\bar 3}_{r}^{5}] [S_{63}^{+}] [S_{63}^{+}] [{\bar 3}^{-}]   [x,{\bar x},{\bar x}] [y,{\bar z},x]
[3_{s}^{2}] [C_{34}^{-}] [C_{34}^{-}] [3^{-}]   [{\bar x},x,{\bar x}] [{\bar y},{\bar z},x] [{\bar 3}_{s}^{5}] [S_{64}^{+}] [S_{64}^{+}] [{\bar 3}^{-}]   [{\bar x},x,{\bar x}] [y,z,{\bar x}]
[4_{z}] [C_{4z}^{+}] [C_{4z}^{+}] [4^{+}]   [0,0,z] [{\bar y},x,z] [{\bar 4}_{z}] [S_{4z}^{-}] [S_{4z}^{-}] [{\bar 4}^{+}]   [0,0,z] [y,{\bar x},{\bar z}]
[4_{x}] [C_{4x}^{+}] [C_{4x}^{+}] [4^{+}]   [x,0,0] [x,{\bar z},y] [{\bar 4}_{x}] [S_{4x}^{-}] [S_{4x}^{-}] [{\bar 4}^{+}]   [x,0,0] [{\bar x},z,{\bar y}]
[4_{y}] [C_{4y}^{+}] [C_{4y}^{+}] [4^{+}]   [0,y,0] [z,y,{\bar x}] [{\bar 4}_{y}] [S_{4y}^{-}] [S_{4y}^{-}] [{\bar 4}^{+}]   [0,y,0] [{\bar z},{\bar y},x]
[4_{z}^{3}] [C_{4z}^{-}] [C_{4z}^{-}] [4^{-}]   [0,0,z] [y,{\bar x},z] [{\bar 4}_{z}^{3}] [S_{4z}^{+}] [S_{4z}^{+}] [{\bar 4}^{-}]   [0,0,z] [{\bar y},x,{\bar z}]
[4_{x}^{3}] [C_{4x}^{-}] [C_{4x}^{-}] [4^{-}]   [x,0,0] [x,z,{\bar y}] [{\bar 4}_{x}^{3}] [S_{4x}^{+}] [S_{4x}^{+}] [{\bar 4}^{-}]   [x,0,0] [{\bar x},{\bar z},y]
[4_{y}^{3}] [C_{4y}^{-}] [C_{4y}^{-}] [4^{-}]   [0,y,0] [{\bar z},y,x] [{\bar 4}_{y}^{3}] [S_{4y}^{+}] [S_{4y}^{+}] [{\bar 4}^{-}]   [0,y,0] [z,{\bar y},{\bar x}]

Table 3.4.2.6| top | pdf |
Symbols of symmetry operations of the point group [6/mmm]

Standard: symbols used in Section 3.1.3[link] , in the present chapter and in the software; suffixes (in italic) refer to the Cartesian crystallophysical coordinate system. BC: Bradley & Cracknell (1972[link]). AH: Altmann & Herzig (1994[link]). IT A: IT A (2005[link]), coordinates (in Sans Serif) are expressed in a crystallographic hexagonal basis. Jones: Jones' faithful representation symbols express the action of a symmetry operation of a vector [({\sf xyz})] in a crystallographic basis (see e.g. Bradley & Cracknell, 1972[link]).

StandardBCAHIT AJonesStandardBCAHIT AJones
1 or e E E [{\sf 1}] [{\sf x,y,z}] [\bar 1] or i I I [{\bar{\sf 1}}]   [{\sf 0,0,0}] [\bar{\sf x},\bar{\sf y},\bar{\sf z}]
[6_{ z}] [C_{6}^{+}] [C_{6}^{+}] [{\sf 6^{+}}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [{\sf x-y,x,z}] [{\bar 6}_{ z}] [S_{3}^{-}] [S_{3}^{-}] [{\bar{\sf 6}^{+}}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [{\sf y-x},\bar{\sf x},\bar{\sf z}]
[3_{ z}] [C_{3}^{+}] [C_{3}^{+}] [{\sf 3^{+}}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [{\bar {\sf y}},{\sf x-y},{\sf z}] [{\bar 3}_{ z}] [S_{6}^{-}] [S_{6}^{-}] [{\bar {\sf 3}^{+}}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [{\sf y,y-x,}\bar{\sf z}]
[2_{ z}] [C_{2}] [C_{2}] [{\sf 2}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [\bar{\sf x},\bar{\sf y},{\sf z}] [m_{ z}] [\sigma_{h}] [\sigma_{h}] [{\sf m}]   [{\sf x,y,0}] [{\sf x},{\sf y},\bar{\sf z}]
[3_{ z}^{2}] [C_{3}^{-}] [C_{3}^{-}] [{\sf 3^{-}}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [{\sf y-x},\bar{\sf x},{\sf z}] [{\bar 3}_{ z}^{5}] [S_{6}^{+}] [S_{6}^{+}] [{\bar {\sf 3}^{-}}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [{\sf x-y},{\sf x},\bar{\sf z}]
[6_{ z}^{5}] [C_{6}^{-}] [C_{6}^{-}] [{\sf 6^{-}}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [{\sf y,y-x,z}] [{\bar 6}_{ z}^{5}] [S_{3}^{+}] [S_{3}^{+}] [\bar{\sf 6}^{-}]   [{\sf 0,0,z}] [\bar{\sf y},{\sf x-y},\bar{\sf z}]
[2_{ x}] [C_{21}{^\prime}{^\prime}] [C_{21}{^\prime}{^\prime}] [{\sf 2}]   [{\sf x,0,0}] [{\sf x-y},\bar{\sf y},\bar{\sf z}] [m_{ x}] [\sigma_{v1}] [\sigma_{v1}] [{\sf m}]   [{\sf x,2x,z}] [{\sf y-x,y,z}]
[2_{x^\prime}] [C_{22}{^\prime}{^\prime}] [C_{22}{^\prime}{^\prime}] [{\sf 2}]   [{\sf 0,y,0}] [\bar{\sf x},{\sf y-x},\bar{\sf z}] [m_{x^\prime}] [\sigma_{v2}] [\sigma_{v2}] [{\sf m}]   [{\sf 2x,x,z}] [{\sf x,x-y,z}]
[2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}] [C_{23}{^\prime}{^\prime}] [C_{23}{^\prime}{^\prime}] [{\sf 2}]   [{\sf x,x,0}] [{\sf y},{\sf x},\bar{\sf z}] [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}] [\sigma_{v3}] [\sigma_{v3}] [{\sf m}]   [{\sf x},\bar{\sf x},{\sf z}] [\bar{\sf y},\bar{\sf x},{\sf z}]
[2_{y}] [C_{21}{^\prime}] [C_{21}{^\prime}] [{\sf 2}]   [{\sf x,2x,0}] [{\sf y-x},{\sf y},\bar{\sf z}] [m_{y}] [\sigma_{d1}] [\sigma_{d1}] [{\sf m}]   [{\sf x,0,z}] [{\sf x-y},\bar{\sf y},{\sf z}]
[2_{y{^\prime}}] [C_{22}{^\prime}] [C_{22}{^\prime}] [{\sf 2}]   [{\sf 2x,x,0}] [{\sf x,x-y},\bar{\sf z}] [m_{y{^\prime}}] [\sigma_{d2}] [\sigma_{d2}] [{\sf m}]   [{\sf 0,y,z}] [\bar{\sf x},{\sf y-x,z}]
[2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}] [C_{23}{^\prime}] [C_{23}{^\prime}] [{\sf 2}]   [{\sf x},\bar{\sf x},{\sf 0}] [\bar{\sf y},\bar{\sf x},\bar{\sf z}] [m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}] [\sigma_{d3}] [\sigma_{d3}] [{\sf m}]   [{\sf x,x,z}] [{\sf y,x,z}]
[Figure 3.4.2.3]

Figure 3.4.2.3 | top | pdf |

Oriented symmetry operations of the cubic group [m\bar3m] and of its subgroups. The Cartesian (rectangular) coordinate system [x, y, z ] is identical with the crystallographic and crystallophysical coordinate systems. Correlation with other notations is given in Table 3.4.2.5[link].

[Figure 3.4.2.4]

Figure 3.4.2.4 | top | pdf |

Oriented symmetry operations of the hexagonal group [6/mmm ] and of its hexagonal and trigonal subgroups. The coordinate system [x, y, z] corresponds to the Cartesian crystallophysical coordinate system, the axes [{\sf x, y, z}] of the crystallographic coordinate system are parallel to the twofold rotation axes [2_x, 2_{x^\prime}] and to the sixfold rotation axis [6_z]. Correlation with other notations is given in Table 3.4.2.6[link].

Now we can present the synoptic Table 3.4.2.7[link].

3.4.2.4.1. Explanation of Table 3.4.2.7[link]

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  • G: point group expressing the symmetry of the parent (prototypic) phase. Subscripts of generators in the group symbol specify their orientation in the Cartesian (rectangular) crystallophysical coordinate system of the group G (see Tables 3.4.2.5[link] and 3.4.2.6[link], and Figs. 3.4.2.3 [link]and 3.4.2.4[link]).

    Table 3.4.2.7| top | pdf |
    Group–subgroup symmetry descents [G \supset F_1]

    G: point-group symmetry of parent phase; [F_1]: point-group symmetry of single-domain state [{\bf S}_1]; [\Gamma_{\eta} ]: representation of G; [N_{G}(F_1)]: normalizer of [F_1] in G; [K_{1j}]: twinning groups; n: number of principal single-domain states; [d_F]: number of principal domain states with the same symmetry; [n_e]: number of ferroelectric single-domain states; [n_a]: number of ferroelastic single-domain states.

    G[F_1][\Gamma_{\eta}][N_{G}(F_1)][K_{1j}]n[d_F ][n_e ][n_a ]
    [ {\bar {\bf 1}}] 1 [A_u] [\bar1] [\bar1^{\star}] 2 2 2 1
    [{\bf 2}_{\bi u}] 1 B [2_u] [2_u^\star] 2 2 2 2
    [{\bi m_u}] 1 [A{^\prime}{^\prime}] [m_u] [m_u^\star] 2 2 2 2
    [{\bf 2}_{\bi u}/{\bi m_u} ] [m_u] [B_u] [2_u/m_u] [2_u^\star/m_u] 2 2 2 1
    [2_u] [A_u] [2_u/m_u] [2_u/m_u^\star] 2 2 2 1
    [\bar 1 ] [B_g ] [2_u/m_u] [2_u^\star/m_u^\star] 2 2 0 2
    1 Reducible [2_u/m_u] [m_u^{\star}], [ 2_u^{\star}], [\bar 1^{\star}] 4 4 4 2
    [{\bf 2}_{\bi x}{\bf 2}_{\bi y}{\bf 2}_{\bi z} ] [2_z] [B_{1g} ] [2_x2_y2_z ] [2_x^\star2_y^\star2_z ] 2 2 2 2
    [2_x] [B_{3g} ] [2_x2_y2_z] [2_x2_y^\star2_z^\star ] 2 2 2 2
    [2_y] [B_{2g} ] [2_x2_y2_z] [2_x^\star2_y2_z^\star] 2 2 2 2
    1 Reducible [2_x2_y2_z] [2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}], [2_y^{\star}] 4 4 4 4
    [{\bi m_xm_y}{\bf 2}_{\bi z} ] [m_x] [B_2] [m_xm_y2_z] [m_xm_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}] 2 2 2 2
    [m_y ] [B_1] [m_xm_y2_z] [m_x^{\star}m_y2_z^{\star}] 2 2 2 2
    [2_z] [A_2] [m_xm_y2_z] [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z] 2 2 1 2
    1 Reducible [m_xm_y2_z] [m_x^{\star}], [m_y^{\star}], [2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 4 4
    [{\bi m_xm_ym_z}] [m_xm_y2_z ] [B_{1u} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m_xm_ym_z^\star] 2 2 2 1
    [2_xm_ym_z ] [B_{3u} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m_x^{\star}m_ym_z] 2 2 2 1
    [m_x2_ym_z ] [B_{2u} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m_xm_y^{\star}m_z] 2 2 2 1
    [2_x2_y2_z ] [A_{1u} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [2_z/m_z] [B_{1g} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z ] 2 2 0 2
    [2_x/m_x] [B_{3g} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m_xm_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}] 2 2 0 2
    [2_y/m_y] [B_{2g} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m_x^{\star}m_ym_z^{\star}] 2 2 0 2
    [m_z ] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z], [m_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}m_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z] 4 4 4 2
    [m_x ] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [m_xm_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}], [m_x2_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}/m_x] 4 4 4 2
    [m_y ] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [m_x^{\star}m_y2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}m_ym_z^{\star}], [2_y^{\star}/m_y] 4 4 4 2
    [2_z ] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z], [2_z/m_z^{\star}] 4 4 2 2
    [2_x ] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [2_xm_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}], [2_x2_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}], [2_x/m_x^{\star}] 4 4 2 2
    [2_y ] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [m_x^{\star}2_ym_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}2_y2_z^{\star}], [2_y/m_y^{\star}] 4 4 2 2
    [\bar 1] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [2_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}/m_x^{\star} ], [2_y^{\star}/m_y^{\star}] 4 4 0 4
    1 Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [m_z^{\star}], [m_x^{\star}], [m_y^{\star}], [2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}], [2_y^{\star} ], [\bar 1^{\star}] 8 8 8 4
    [{\bf 4}_{\bi z} ] [2_z ] B [4_z] [4_z^{\star} ] 2 2 1 2
    1 [^1E\oplus ^2E] [4_z] [4_z, 2_z^{\star}] 4 4 4 4
    [{\bar {\bf 4}}_{\bi z} ] [2_z ] B [\bar4_z ] [\bar 4_z^{\star}] 2 2 2 2
    1 [^1E\oplus ^2E ] [\bar4_z ] [\bar 4_z,] [2_z^{\star}] 4 2 4 4
    [{\bf 4}_{\bi z}/{\bi m_z} ] [\bar4_z] [B_u] [4_z/m_z ] [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [4_z ] [A_u] [4_z/m_z ] [4_z/m_z^{\star} ] 2 2 2 1
    [2_z/m_z ] [B_g] [4_z/m_z ] [4_z^{\star}/m_z ] 2 2 0 2
    [m_z] [^1E_u \oplus ^2E_u] [4_z/m_z] [4_z/m_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z] 4 4 4 2
    [2_z] Reducible [4_z/m_z] [\bar 4_z^{\star}], [4_z^{\star} ], [2_z/m_z^{\star}] 4 4 2 2
    [\bar 1] [^1E_g \oplus ^2E_g ] [4_z/m_z] [4_z/m_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star} ] 4 4 0 4
    1 Reducible [4_z/m_z] [\bar4_z], [4_z], [m_z^{\star} ], [2_z^{\star}], [\bar1^{\star}] 8 8 8 4
    [{\bf 4}_{\bi z}{\bf 2}_{\bi x}{\bf 2}_{\bi xy} ] [4_z] [A_2] [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [4_z2_x^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}] 2 2 2 1
    [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z] [B_2] [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [4_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}2_{xy}] 2 2 0 2
    [2_x2_y2_z ] [B_1] [4_z2_x2_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}2_x2_{xy}^{\star}] 2 2 0 2
    [2_{xy}] [(2_{x\bar{y}})] E [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z ] [4_z2_x2_{xy}], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 2 2
    [2_z ] Reducible [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [4_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z ], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}2_z] 4 4 2 2
    [2_x] [(2_y)] E [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z] [4_z2_x2_{xy}], [2_x2_y^{\star}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 2 2
    1 E [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [4_z], [2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}(2)], [2_{xy}^{\star}(2)] 8 8 8 8
    [{\bf 4}_{\bi z}{\bi m}_{\bi x}{\bi m}_{\bi xy} ] [4_z ] [A_2] [4_zm_xm_{xy}] [4_zm_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star} ] 2 2 1 1
    [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z] [B_2] [4_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_{xy} ] 2 2 1 2
    [m_xm_y2_z ] [B_1] [4_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}m_xm_{xy}^{\star} ] 2 2 1 2
    [m_{xy}] [(m_{x\bar{y}})] E [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z] [4_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 4 4
    [m_x] [(m_y)] E [m_xm_y2_z ] [4_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_xm_y^{\star}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 4 4
    [2_z] Reducible [4_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z ], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}2_z] 4 4 2 2
    1 E [4_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z], [m_x^{\star}(2)], [m_{xy}^{\star}(2)], [2_z^{\star}] 8 8 8 8
    [{\bar {\bf 4}}_{\bi z}{\bf 2}_{\bi x}{\bi m_{xy}} ] [\bar4_z] [A_2] [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z2_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z] [B_2] [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}m_{xy}] 2 2 2 2
    [2_x2_y2_z ] [B_1] [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}2_xm_{xy}^{\star}] 2 2 0 2
    [m_{xy}] [(m_{x\bar{y}})] E [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z] [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 4 4
    [2_z ] Reducible [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}2_z ], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z] 4 4 2 2
    [2_x ] [(2_y) ] E [2_x2_y2_z ] [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}], [2_x2_y^{\star}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 4 4
    1 E [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z], [m_{xy}^{\star}(2)], [2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}(2)] 8 8 8 8
    [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [\bar4_z] [A_2] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [\bar4_zm_x^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [m_xm_y2_z ] [B_2] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}m_x2_{xy}^{\star}] 2 2 2 2
    [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z] [B_1] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}2_{xy}] 2 2 0 2
    [m_x] [(m_y)] E [m_xm_y2_z ] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}], [m_xm_y^{\star}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 4 4
    [2_{xy}] [(2_{x\bar{y}})] E [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}2_z^{\star} ] 4 2 4 4
    [2_z ] Reducible [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star} ], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z ], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}2_z] 4 4 2 2
    1 E [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [\bar4_z], [m_x^{\star}(2)], [2_{xy}^{\star}(2)], [2_z^{\star}] 8 8 8 8
    [{\bf 4}_{\bi z}/{\bi m_zm_xm_{xy}} ] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [B_{2u}] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_xm_{xy}^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy} ] [B_{1u} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_{xy} ] 2 2 0 1
    [4_zm_xm_{xy} ] [A_{2u} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_xm_{xy}] 2 2 2 1
    [4_z2_x2_{xy} ] [A_{1u} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_{xy} ] 2 2 0 1
    [4_z/m_z ] [A_{2g} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z^{\star}/m_zm_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [\bar4_z ] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [\bar4_z2_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}], [\bar4_zm_x^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}], [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}] 4 4 0 1
    [4_z] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_zm_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star} ], [4_z2_x^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}], [4_z/m_z^{\star}] 4 4 2 1
    [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [B_{2g} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [4_z^{\star}/m_zm_x^{\star}m_{xy}] 2 2 0 2
    [m_xm_ym_z] [B_{1g} ] [m_xm_ym_z ] [4_z^{\star}/m_zm_xm_{xy}^{\star}] 2 2 0 2
    [2_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z] [(m_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}m_z)] [E_u] [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}m_z ] 4 2 4 2
    [2_xm_ym_z] [(m_x2_ym_z)] [E_u] [m_xm_ym_z] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_x^{\star}m_ym_z ] 4 2 4 2
    [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z ] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}m_{xy}], [4_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z^{\star} ] 4 4 2 2
    [m_xm_y2_z] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}m_x2_{xy}^{\star}], [4_z^{\star}m_xm_{xy}^{\star}], [m_xm_ym_z^{\star} ] 4 4 2 2
    [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z ] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}2_{xy}], [4_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}2_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}m_z^{\star} ] 4 4 0 2
    [2_x2_y2_z] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [\bar4_z^{\star}2_xm_{xy}^{\star}], [4_z^{\star}2_x2_{xy}^{\star}], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}] 4 4 0 2
    [2_{xy}/m_{xy}] [(2_{x\bar{y}}/m_{x\bar{y}})] [E_g] [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}m_z^{\star} ] 4 2 0 4
    [2_z/m_z ] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [4_z^{\star}/m_z], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}m_z ], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z ] 4 4 0 4
    [2_x/m_x] [(2_y/m_y)] [E_g] [m_xm_ym_z] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_xm_y^{\star}m_z^{\star} ] 4 2 0 4
    [m_{xy} (m_{x \bar y})] Reducible [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}], [4_zm_xm_{xy} ], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}m_z^{\star}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}2_z^{\star} ], [2_{xy}^{\star}/m_{xy}] 8 4 8 4
    [m_z ] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z/m_z], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}m_z(2) ], [2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z(2)], [2_z^{\star}/m_z ] 8 8 8 4
    [m_x] [(m_y) ] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}], [4_zm_xm_{xy} ], [m_xm_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}], [m_x2_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}/m_x] 8 4 8 4
    [2_{xy}] [(2_{x\bar{y}})] Reducible [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}], [4_z2_x2_{xy} ], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}m_z^{\star}], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}2_z^{\star} ], [2_{xy}/m_{xy}^{\star}] 8 4 8 4
    [2_z] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z^{\star}], [4_z^{\star} ], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}2_z ], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}2_z ], [2_z/m_z^{\star}] 8 8 2 4
    [2_x] [(2_y)] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}], [4_z2_x2_{xy} ], [2_xm_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}], [2_x2_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}], [2_x/m_x^{\star}] 8 4 4 4
    [\bar1] [E_g] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [4_z/m_z], [2_{xy}^{\star}/m_{xy}^{\star}(2) ], [2_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}/m_x^{\star}(2)] 8 8 0 8
    1 Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [\bar4_z], [4_z], [m_{xy}^{\star}(2) ], [m_z^{\star}], [m_x^{\star}(2)], [2_{xy}^{\star}(2) ], [2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}(2)], [\bar1^{\star}] 16 16 16 8
    [{\bf 3}_{\bi z} ] 1 E [3_z ] [3_z ] 3 3 3 3
    [{\bar {\bf 3}}_{\bi z} ] [3_z ] [A_u] [\bar3_z ] [\bar 3_z^{\star} ] 2 2 2 1
    [\bar 1 ] [E_g] [\bar3_z ] [\bar 3_z] 3 3 0 3
    1 [E_u] [\bar3_z ] [\bar 3_z], [3_z], [\bar 1^{\star} ] 6 6 6 3
    [{\bf 3}_{\bi z}{\bf 2}_{\bi x} ] [3_z] [A_2] [3_z2_x] [3_z2_x^{\star}] 2 2 2 1
    [2_x] [(2_{x^{\prime}}], [2_{x^{{\prime}{\prime}}})] E [2_x ] [3_z2_x ] 3 1 3 3
    1 E [3_z2_x] [3_z, 2_x^{\star}(3) ] 6 6 6 6
    [3_z2_y ] [3_z] [A_2] [3_z2_y] [3_z2_y^{\star}] 2 2 2 1
    [2_y] [(2_{y^{\prime}}], [2_{y^{{\prime}{\prime}}})] E [2_y] [3_z2_y ] 3 1 3 3
    1 E [3_z2_y] [3_z], [2_y^{\star}(3)] 6 6 6 6
    [{\bf 3}_{\bi z}{\bi m_x} ] [3_z] [A_2] [3_zm_x] [3_zm_x^{\star}] 2 2 1 1
    [m_x] [(m_{x^\prime}], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] E [m_x ] [3_zm_x ] 3 1 3 3
    1 E [3_zm_x] [3_z], [m_x^{\star}(3)] 6 6 6 6
    [3_zm_y] [3_z] [A_2] [3_zm_y] [3_zm_y^{\star}] 2 2 1 1
    [m_y ] [(m_{y{^\prime}}], [m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] E [m_y] [3_zm_y ] 3 1 3 3
    1 E [3_zm_y] [3_z], [m_y^{\star}(3)] 6 6 6 6
    [{\bar {\bf 3}}_{\bi z}{\bi m_x} ] [3_zm_x ] [A_{2u} ] [\bar3_zm_x ] [\bar3_z^{\star}m_x ] 2 2 2 1
    [3_z2_x ] [A_{1u} ] [\bar3_zm_x ] [\bar3_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}] 2 2 0 2
    [\bar 3_z ] [A_{2g} ] [\bar3_zm_x ] [\bar3_zm_x^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [3_z ] Reducible [\bar3_zm_x] [3_zm_x^{\star}], [3_z2_x^{\star} ], [\bar 3_z^{\star} ] 4 4 2 1
    [2_x/m_x] [(2_{x^\prime}/m_{x^\prime} ], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}/m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_g] [2_x/m_x] [\bar3_zm_x ] 3 1 0 3
    [m_x] [(m_{x{^\prime}}], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_u] [2_x/m_x] [\bar3_zm_x], [3_zm_x], [2_x^{\star}/m_x(3)] 6 2 6 3
    [2_x ] [(2_{x{^\prime}}], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_u] [2_x/m_x] [\bar3_zm_x], [3_z2_x], [2_x/m_x^{\star}(3) ] 6 2 6 3
    [\bar 1] [E_g] [\bar3_zm_x] [\bar 3_z], [2_x^{\star}/m_x^{\star}(3) ] 6 6 0 6
    1 [E_u] [\bar3_zm_x] [\bar 3_z], [3_z], [m_x^{\star}(3) ], [2_x^{\star}(3)], [\bar 1^{\star} ] 12 12 12 6
    [\bar3_zm_y] [3_zm_y] [A_{2u}] [\bar3_zm_y] [\bar3_z^{\star}m_y] 2 2 2 1
    [3_z2_y] [A_{1u}] [\bar3_zm_y] [\bar3_z^{\star}m_y^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [\bar 3_z] [A_{2g}] [\bar3_zm_y] [\bar3_zm_y^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [3_z] Reducible [\bar3_zm_y] [3_zm_y^{\star}], [3_z2_y^{\star} ], [\bar 3_z^{\star}] 4 4 0 1
    [2_y/m_y] [(2_{y{^\prime}}/m_{y{^\prime}} ], [2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}/m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_g] [2_y/m_y] [\bar3_zm_y ] 3 1 2 1
    [m_y] [(m_{y{^\prime}}], [m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_u] [2_y/m_y] [\bar3_zm_y], [3_zm_y], [2_y^{\star}/m_y(3)] 6 2 0 3
    [2_y ] [(2_{y{^\prime}}], [2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}) ] [E_u] [2_y/m_y] [\bar3_zm_y], [3_z2_y], [2_y/m_y^{\star}(3) ] 6 2 6 3
    [\bar 1] [E_g] [\bar3_zm_y] [\bar 3_z], [2_y^{\star}/m_y^{\star}(3) ] 6 6 0 3
    1 [E_u] [\bar3_zm_y] [\bar 3_z], [3_z], [m_y^{\star}(3) ], [2_y^{\star}(3)], [\bar 1^{\star}] 12 12 12 6
    [{\bf 6}_{\bi z} ] [3_z] B [6_z ] [6_z^{\star}] 2 2 1 1
    [2_z] [E_2] [6_z] [6_z ] 3 3 1 3
    1 [E_1] [6_z] [6_z], [3_z], [2_z^{\star} ] 6 6 6 6
    [{\bar{\bf 6}}_{\bi z} ] [3_z] [A{^\prime}{^\prime}] [\bar6_z] [\bar 6_z^{\star}] 2 2 2 1
    [m_z] [E{^\prime}] [\bar6_z] [\bar 6_z] 3 2 3 3
    1 [E{^\prime}{^\prime}] [\bar6_z] [\bar 6_z ], [3_z], [m_z^{\star} ] 6 6 6 6
    [{\bf 6}_{\bi z}/{\bi m_z} ] [\bar 6_z] [B_u ] [6_z/m_z] [6_z^{\star}/m_z] 2 2 0 1
    [6_z ] [A_u ] [6_z/m_z] [6_z/m_z^{\star}] 2 2 2 1
    [\bar 3_z ] [B_g ] [6_z/m_z] [6_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [3_z ] Reducible [6_z/m_z] [\bar 6_z^{\star}], [6_z^{\star} ], [\bar 3_z^{\star}] 4 4 2 1
    [2_z/m_z] [E_{2g} ] [6_z/m_z] [6_z/m_z] 3 3 0 3
    [m_z ] [E_{1u} ] [6_z/m_z] [6_z/m_z], [\bar 6_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z ] 6 6 6 3
    [2_z ] [E_{2u} ] [6_z/m_z] [6_z/m_z], [6_z], [2_z/m_z^{\star} ] 6 6 2 3
    [\bar 1 ] [E_{1g} ] [6_z/m_z] [6_z/m_z], [\bar 3_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star} ] 6 6 0 6
    1 Reducible [6_z/m_z] [\bar 6_z], [6_z], [\bar 3_z ], [3_z], [m_z^{\star}], [2_z^{\star}], [\bar 1^{\star} ] 12 12 12 6
    [{\bf 6}_{\bi z}{\bf 2}_{\bi x}{\bf 2}_{\bi y}] [6_z] [A_2 ] [6_z2_x2_y] [6_z2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}] 2 2 2 1
    [3_z2_x] [B_1 ] [6_z2_x2_y ] [6_z^{\star}2_x2_y^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [3_z2_y] [B_2 ] [6_z2_x2_y ] [6_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}2_y] 2 2 0 1
    [3_z ] Reducible [6_z2_x2_y] [6_z^{\star}], [3_z2_x^{\star} ], [3_z2_y^{\star} ] 4 4 2 1
    [2_x2_y2_z] [(2_{x{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}}2_z ], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_z)] [E_2] [2_x2_y2_z] [6_z2_x2_y ] 3 1 0 3
    [2_z ] [E_2] [6_z 2_x2_y] [6_z], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z(3) ] 6 6 2 6
    [2_x] [(2_{x{^\prime}}], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_1] [2_x2_y2_z] [6_z2_x2_y], [3_z2_x], [2_x2_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}] 6 2 6 6
    [2_y] [(2_{y{^\prime}}], [2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_1] [2_x2_y2_z] [6_z2_x2_y], [3_z2_y], [2_x^{\star}2_y2_z^{\star} ] 6 2 6 6
    1 [E_1] [6_z2_x2_y] [6_z], [3_z], [2_z^{\star} ], [2_x^{\star}(3)], [2_y^{\star}(3)] 12 12 12 12
    [{\bf 6}_{\bi z}{\bi m}_{\bi x}{\bi m}_{\bi y} ] [6_z] [A_2] [6_zm_xm_y] [6_zm_x^{\star}m_y^{\star} ] 2 2 1 1
    [3_zm_x] [B_2] [6_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}m_xm_y^{\star}] 2 2 1 1
    [3_zm_y] [B_1] [6_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_y] 2 2 1 1
    [3_z ] Reducible [6_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}], [3_zm_x^{\star} ], [3_zm_y^{\star}] 4 4 1 1
    [m_xm_y2_z] [(m_{x{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}}2_z ], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_z)] [E_2] [m_xm_y2_z] [6_zm_xm_y] 3 1 1 3
    [m_x] [(m_{x{^\prime}}], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_1] [m_xm_y2_z] [6_zm_xm_y], [3_zm_x], [m_xm_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}] 6 2 6 6
    [m_y ] [(m_{y{^\prime}}], [m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_1] [m_xm_y2_z] [6_zm_xm_y], [3_zm_y], [m_x^{\star}m_y2_z^{\star}] 6 2 6 6
    [2_z ] [E_2] [6_zm_xm_y] [6_z], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z(3) ] 6 6 1 6
    1 [E_1] [6_zm_xm_y] [6_z], [3_z], [2_z^{\star} ], [m_x^{\star}(3)], [m_y^{\star}(3)] 12 12 12 12
    [{\bar {\bf 6}}_{\bi z}{\bi m_x}{\bf 2}_{\bi y} ] [\bar 6_z ] [A_2{^\prime} ] [\bar6_zm_x2_y] [\bar6_zm_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [3_zm_x ] [A_2{^\prime}{^\prime}] [\bar6_zm_x2_y] [\bar6_z^{\star}m_x2_y^{\star} ] 2 2 2 1
    [3_z2_y ] [A_1{^\prime}] [\bar6_zm_x2_y] [\bar6_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}2_y ] 2 2 0 1
    [3_z ] Reducible [\bar6_zm_x2_y] [\bar 6_z^{\star} ], [3_zm_x^{\star} ], [3_z2_y^{\star}] 4 4 2 1
    [m_x2_ym_z] [(m_{x{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}}m_z ], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_z)] [E{^\prime}] [m_x2_ym_z] [\bar6_zm_x2_y] 3 1 3 3
    [m_z ] [E{^\prime}] [\bar6_zm_x2_y] [\bar6_z, m_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}m_z(3) ] 6 6 6 6
    [m_x] [(m_{x{^\prime}}], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E{^\prime}{^\prime}] [m_y2_ym_z] [\bar6_zm_x2_y], [3_zm_x], [m_x2_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}] 6 2 6 6
    [2_y] [(2_{y{^\prime}}], [2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E{^\prime}{^\prime}] [m_x2_ym_z] [\bar6_zm_x2_y], [3_z2_y], [m_x^{\star}2_ym_z^{\star}] 6 2 3 6
    1 [E{^\prime}{^\prime}] [\bar6_zm_x2_y] [\bar 6_z], [3_z], [m_z^{\star} ], [m_x^{\star}(3)], [2_y^{\star}(3)] 12 12 12 12
    [\bar 6_z2_xm_y ] [\bar 6_z ] [A_2{^\prime} ] [\bar6_z2_xm_y] [\bar6_z2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [3_zm_y] [A_2{^\prime} ] [\bar6_z2_xm_y] [\bar6_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}m_y] 2 2 2 1
    [3_z2_x] [A_1{^\prime}{^\prime}] [\bar6_z2_xm_y ] [\bar6_z^{\star}2_xm_y^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [3_z] Reducible [\bar6_z2_xm_y ] [\bar 6_z^{\star}], [3_zm_y^{\star} ], [3_z2_x^{\star}] 4 4 2 1
    [2_xm_ym_z] [(2_{x{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}}m_z ], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_z)] [E{^\prime}] [m_x2_ym_z] [\bar6_z2_xm_y] 3 1 3 3
    [m_z] [E{^\prime}] [\bar6_z2_xm_y ] [\bar6_z], [2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z(3) ] 6 6 6 6
    [m_y] [(m_{y{^\prime}}], [m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E{^\prime}{^\prime}] [m_x2_ym_z] [\bar 6_z2_xm_y], [3_zm_y], [2_x^{\star}m_ym_z^{\star}] 6 2 6 6
    [2_x] [(2_{x{^\prime}}], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E{^\prime}{^\prime}] [m_x2_ym_z] [\bar 6_z2_xm_y], [3_z2_x], [2_xm_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}] 6 2 3 6
    1 [E{^\prime}{^\prime}] [\bar6_z2_xm_y ] [\bar 6_z], [3_z], [m_z^{\star} ], [m_y^{\star}(3)], [2_x^{\star}(3)] 12 12 12 12
    [{\bf 6}_{\bi z}/{\bi m_zm_xm_y} ] [\bar 6_zm_x2_y] [B_{2u}] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}/m_zm_xm_y^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [\bar 6_z2_xm_y] [B_{1u} ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}/m_zm_x^{\star}m_y] 2 2 0 1
    [6_zm_xm_y] [A_{2u} ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z/m_z^{\star}m_xm_y ] 2 2 2 1
    [6_z2_x2_y] [A_{1u} ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z/m_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [6_z/m_z ] [A_{2g} ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z/m_zm_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [\bar 6_z] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [\bar 6_zm_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}], [\bar6_z2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star} ], [6_z^{\star}/m_z ] 4 4 0 1
    [6_z] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_zm_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}], [6_z2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}], [6_z/m_z^{\star}] 4 4 2 1
    [\bar 3_zm_x] [B_{1g} ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_xm_y^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [\bar 3_zm_y] [B_{2g}] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_y ] 2 2 0 1
    [3_zm_x] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [\bar 6_z^{\star}m_x2_y^{\star}], [6_z^{\star}m_xm_y^{\star}], [\bar 3_z^{\star}m_x ] 4 4 2 1
    [3_zm_y] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [\bar 6_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}m_y], [6_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_y], [\bar 3_z^{\star}m_y] 4 4 2 1
    [3_z2_x] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [\bar 6_z^{\star}2_xm_y^{\star}], [6_z^{\star}2_x2_y^{\star}], [\bar 3_z^{\star}m_x^{\star} ] 4 4 0 1
    [3_z2_y] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [\bar 6_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}2_y], [6_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}2_y], [\bar 3_z^{\star}m_y^{\star}] 4 4 0 1
    [\bar 3_z] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}], [\bar 3_zm_x^{\star} ], [\bar 3_zm_y^{\star}] 4 4 0 1
    [3_z] Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [\bar 6_z^{\star}], [6_z^{\star} ], [3_zm_x^{\star}], [3_zm_y^{\star}], [3_z2_x^{\star} ], [3_z2_y^{\star}], [\bar 3_z^{\star}] 8 8 2 1
    [m_xm_ym_z] [(m_{x{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}}m_z ], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_z)] [E_{2g} ] [m_xm_ym_z ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] 3 1 0 3
    [m_xm_y2_z ] [(m_{x{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}}2_z ], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_z)] [E_{2u}] [m_xm_ym_z] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y], [6_zm_xm_y], [m_xm_ym_z^{\star}] 6 2 2 3
    [2_xm_ym_z] [(2_{x{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}}m_z ], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_z)] [E_{1u} ] [m_xm_ym_z] [6_z/m_z m_xm_z], [\bar 6_z2_xm_y ], [m_x^{\star}m_ym_z] 6 2 6 3
    [m_x2_ym_z] [(m_{x{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}}m_z ], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}m_z)] [E_{1u}] [m_xm_ym_z] [6_z/m_z m_xm_z], [\bar 6_zm_x2_y ], [m_xm_y^{\star}m_z] 6 2 6 3
    [2_x2_y2_z] [(2_{x{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}}2_z ], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}2_z)] [E_{2u}] [m_xm_ym_z ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y], [6_z2_x2_y], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}] 6 6 0 3
    [2_z/m_z] [E_{2g}] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z/m_z], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z(3) ] 6 6 0 6
    [2_x/m_x] [(2_{x{^\prime}}/m_{x{^\prime}} ], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}}/m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_{1g}] [m_xm_ym_z] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y], [\bar 3_zm_x], [m_xm_y^{\star}m_z^{\star} ] 6 2 0 6
    [2_y/m_y] [(2_{y{^\prime}}/m_{y{^\prime}} ], [2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}}/m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] [E_{1g}] [m_xm_ym_z ] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y], [\bar 3m_y], [m_x^{\star}m_ym_z^{\star} ] 6 2 0 6
    [m_z] [E_{1u}] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y] [6_z/m_z], [\bar 6_z], [2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z], [m_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}m_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z ] 12 12 12 6
    [m_x] [(m_{x{^\prime}}], [m_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z ] [\bar 6_zm_x2_y], [6_zm_xm_y], [\bar 3_zm_x], [3_zm_x], [m_xm_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}], [m_x2_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}], [ 2_x^{\star}/m_x] 12 4 12 6
    [m_y] [(m_{y{^\prime}}], [m_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [\bar 6_z2_xm_y], [6_zm_xm_y], [\bar 3_zm_y], [3_zm_y], [m_x^{\star}m_y2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}m_ym_z^{\star}], [2_y^{\star}/m_y] 12 4 12 6
    [2_z] [E_{2u}] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y ] [6_z/m_z], [6_z], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z (3) ], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z(3)], [2_z/m_z^{\star}] 12 12 2 6
    [2_x ] [(2_{x{^\prime}}], [2_{x{^\prime}{^\prime}})] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [\bar 6_z2_xm_y], [6_z2_x2_y], [\bar 3_zm_x], [3_z2_x], [2_xm_y^{\star}m_z^{\star}], [2_x2_y^{\star}2_z^{\star}], [2_x/m_x^{\star}] 12 4 6 6
    [2_y] [(2_{y{^\prime}}], [2_{y{^\prime}{^\prime}})] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [\bar 6_zm_x2_y], [6_z2_x2_y], [\bar 3_zm_y], [3_z2_y], [m_x^{\star}2_ym_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}2_y2_z^{\star}], [2_y/m_y^{\star}] 12 4 6 6
    [\bar 1 ] [E_{1g}] [6_z/m_zm_xm_y ] [6_z/m_z], [\bar 3_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}/m_x^{\star}(3)], [2_y^{\star}/m_y^{\star}(3) ] 12 12 0 12
    1 Reducible [6_z/m_zm_xm_y ] [\bar 6_z], [6_z], [\bar 3_z ], [3_z], [m_z^{\star}], [m_x^{\star}(3)], [m_y^{\star}(3) ], [2_z^{\star}], [2_x^{\star}(3)], [2_y^{\star}(3)], [\bar 1^{\star}] 24 24 24 12
    [{\bf 23}] [3_p] [(3_q], [3_r], [3_s)] T [3_p] 23 4 1 4 4
    [2_x2_y2_z] E 23 23 3 3 0 3
    [2_z] [(2_x], [2_y)] T [2_x2_y2_z] [23], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z ] 6 2 6 6
    1 T [23 ] [3_p(4)], [2_z^{\star}(3)] 12 12 12 12
    [{\bi m}{\bar {\bf 3}} ] 23 [A_u ] [m\bar3] [m^{\star}\bar3^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [\bar 3_p] [(\bar 3_q], [\bar3_r], [\bar 3_s) ] [T_g] [\bar3_p] [m\bar3] 4 1 0 4
    [3_p] [(3_q], [3_r], [3_s)] [T_u] [\bar3_p] [m\bar3, 23 ] 8 2 8 4
    [m_xm_ym_z] [E_g ] [m\bar3 ] [m\bar3] 3 3 0 3
    [m_xm_y2_z ] [(2_xm_ym_z], [m_x2_ym_z)] [T_u ] [m_xm_ym_z] [m\bar3, m_xm_ym_z^{\star}] 6 2 6 3
    [2_x2_y2_z] [E_u ] [m\bar3] [m\bar3], [23], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z^{\star} ] 6 6 0 3
    [2_z/m_z] [(2_x/m_x], [2_y/m_y)] [T_g] [m_xm_ym_z] [m\bar3], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z ] 6 2 0 6
    [m_z] [(m_x], [m_y)] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z ] [m\bar3], [2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z ], [m_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}m_z], [2_z^{\star}/m_z] 12 4 12 6
    [2_z] [(2_x], [2_y)] Reducible [m_xm_ym_z] [m\bar3], [23], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z ], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z], [2_z/m_z^{\star}] 12 4 6 6
    [\bar 1] [T_g ] [m\bar3] [\bar3_p(4)], [2_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}(3) ] 12 12 0 12
    1 [T_u ] [m\bar3] [\bar3_p(4)], [3_p(4)], [m_z^{\star}(3)], [2_z^{\star}(3)], [\bar1^{\star}] 24 24 24 12
    [{\bf 432}] 23 [A_2] 432 [4^{\star}32^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [3_p2_{x\bar{y}}] [(3_q2_{x\bar{y}} ], [ 3_r2_{xy}], [3_s2_{xy})] [T_2] [3_p2_{x\bar{y}} ] 432 4 1 0 4
    [3_p] [(3_q], [3_r], [3_s)] [T_1] [3_p2_{x\bar{y}} ] [23], [3_p2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star} ] 8 2 8 4
    [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [(4_x2_y2_{yz}], [4_y2_z2_{xz})] E [4_z2_x2_{xy}] 432 3 1 0 3
    [4_z] [(4_x], [4_y)] [T_1] [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [432], [4_z2_x^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 2 6 3
    [2_x2_y2_z] E 432 [23], [4_z^{\star}2_x2_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 6 0 6
    [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z ] [(2_{y\bar{z}}2_{yz}2_x ], [2_{z\bar{x}}2_{zx}2_y)] [T_2] [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [432], [4_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}2_{xy} ] 6 2 0 6
    [2_z] [(2_x], [2_y)] Reducible [4_z2_x2_{xy}] 23, [4_y2_z2_{xy}], [4_z^{\star} ], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}2_z], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z ] 12 4 6 12
    [2_{xy}] [(2_{yz}], [2_{zx} ], [2_{x\bar{y}}], [2_{y\bar{z}}], [2_{z\bar{x}})] [T_1], [T_2 ] [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z ] [432], [3_r2_{xy}], [3_s2_{xy} ], [4_z2_x2_{xy}], [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}^{\star}2_z^{\star}] 12 2 12 12
    1 [T_1], [T_2 ] 432 [3_p(4) ], [4_z(3)], [2_z^{\star}(3) ], [2_{xy}^{\star}(6)] 24 24 24 24
    [{\bar {\bf 4}}{\bf 3}{\bi m}] 23 [A_2 ] [\bar43m] [\bar4^{\star}3m^{\star} ] 2 2 0 1
    [3_pm_{x\bar{y}}] [(3_qm_{x\bar{y}} ], [3_rm_{xy}], [3_sm_{xy})] [T_2] [3_pm_{x\bar{y}} ] [\bar43m ] 4 1 4 4
    [3_p] [(3_q], [3_r], [3_s)] [T_1 ] [3_pm_{x\bar{y}} ] [\bar43m], [23], [3_pm_{x\bar{y}}^{\star} ] 8 2 4 4
    [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}] [(\bar4_x2_ym_{yz} ], [\bar4_y2_zm_{zx})] E [\bar4_z2_xm_{x\bar{y}}] [\bar43m] 3 1 0 3
    [\bar4_z] [(\bar4_x, \bar4_y)] [T_1 ] [\bar4_z2_xm_{x\bar{y}}] [\bar43m], [\bar4_z2_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 2 0 3
    [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z] [(m_{y\bar{z}}m_{yz}2_x ], [m_{z\bar{x}}m_{zx}2_y)] [T_2 ] [\bar4_z2_xm_{x\bar{y}}] [\bar43m], [\bar4_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}m_{xy} ] 6 2 6 6
    [2_x2_y2_z] E [\bar43m ] [23, \bar4_z^{\star}2_xm_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 6 0 6
    [m_{xy}] [(m_{yz}], [m_{zx} ], [m_{x\bar{y}}], [m_{y\bar{z}}], [m_{z\bar{x}})] [T_1, T_2] [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z] [\bar43m], [3_rm_{xy}], [3_sm_{xy}], [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}2_z^{\star} ] 12 2 12 12
    [2_z] [(2_x], [2_y)] Reducible [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy} ] 23, [\bar4_z^{\star}], [4_z^{\star} ], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}2_z], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z ] 12 4 6 12
    1 [T_1], [T_2] [\bar43m ] [3_p(4) ], [\bar4_z(3)], [m_{xy}^{\star}(6)], [2_z^{\star}(3)] 24 24 24 24
    [{\bi m}{\bar {\bf 3}}{\bi m} ] [\bar43m] [A_{2u}] [m\bar3m] [m^{\star}\bar3^{\star}m] 2 2 0 1
    432 [A_{1u}] [m\bar3m] [m^{\star}\bar3^{\star}m^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    [m\bar3 ] [A_{2g}] [m\bar3m] [m\bar3m^{\star}] 2 2 0 1
    23 Reducible [m\bar3m] [\bar4^{\star}3m^{\star}], [4^{\star}32^{\star} ], [m_z^{\star}\bar3_p ] 4 4 0 1
    [\bar 3_pm_{x\bar{y}}] [(\bar 3_qm_{x\bar{y}} ], [\bar3_rm_{xy}], [\bar 3_sm_{xy})] [T_{2g}] [\bar3_pm_{x\bar{y}}] [m\bar3m] 4 1 0 4
    [3_pm_{x\bar{y}}] [(3_qm_{x\bar{y}} ], [3_rm_{xy}], [3_sm_{xy})] [T_{1u}] [\bar3_pm_{x\bar{y}} ] [m\bar3m ], [\bar43m], [\bar3_p^{\star}m_{x\bar{y}}] 8 2 8 4
    [3_p2_{x\bar{y}}] [(3_q2_{x\bar{y}} ], [3_r2_{xy}], [3_s2_{xy})] [T_{2u}] [\bar3_pm_{x\bar{y}} ] [m\bar3m], [432], [\bar3_p^{\star}m_{x\bar{y}} ] 8 2 0 4
    [\bar 3_p] [(\bar 3_q], [\bar3_r], [\bar 3_s)] [T_{1g}] [\bar3_pm_{x\bar{y}}] [m\bar3m], [m\bar3], [\bar3_pm_{x\bar{y}}^{\star} ] 8 2 0 4
    [3_p] [(3_q], [3_r], [3_s)] Reducible [\bar3_pm_{x\bar{y}}] [\bar43m], [432], [m\bar3 ], [23], [3_pm_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}], [3_p2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star} ], [\bar3_p^{\star}] 16 4 8 4
    [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [(4_x/m_xm_ym_{yz} ], [4_y/m_ym_zm_{zx})] [E_g ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m] 3 1 0 3
    [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}] [(\bar4_x2_ym_{yz} ], [\bar4_y2_zm_{zx})] [E_u ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [\bar43m], [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_{xy}] 6 2 0 3
    [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}] [(\bar4_xm_y2_{yz} ], [\bar4_ym_z2_{zx})] [T_{2u} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}m_xm_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 2 0 3
    [4_zm_xm_{xy}] [(4_xm_ym_{yz}], [4_ym_zm_{zx})] [T_{1u} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [4_z/m_z^{\star}m_xm_{xy} ] 6 2 6 3
    [4_z2_x2_{xy}] [(4_x2_y2_{yz}], [4_y2_z2_{zx})] [E_u] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy} ] [m\bar3m], [432], [4_z/m_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 2 0 3
    [4_z/m_z] [(4_x/m_x], [4_y/m_y)] [T_{1g} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [4_z/m_zm_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 2 0 3
    [\bar4_z] [(\bar4_x], [\bar4_y)] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [\bar43m], [\bar4_z2_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}], [\bar4_zm_x^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star} ], [4_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}] 12 4 0 3
    [4_z] [(4_x ], [4_y)] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [432], [4_zm_x^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star} ], [4_z2_x^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}], [4_z/m_z^{\star}] 12 4 6 3
    [m_xm_ym_z] [E_g] [m\bar3m ] [m\bar3], [4_z^{\star}/m_zm_xm_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 6 0 6
    [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z] [(m_{y\bar{z}}m_{yz}m_x ], [m_{z\bar{x}}m_{zx}m_y)] [T_{2g} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m ], [4_z^{\star}/m_zm_xm_{xy}^{\star} ] 6 2 0 6
    [m_xm_y2_z] [(2_xm_ym_z], [m_x2_ym_z)] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3], [4_y/m_ym_zm_{zx}], [\bar4_z^{\star}m_x2_{xy}^{\star}], [4_z^{\star}m_xm_{xy}^{\star}], [ m_xm_ym_z^{\star}] 12 4 6 6
    [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}2_z] [(m_{y\bar{z}}m_{yz}2_x ], [m_{z\bar{x}}m_{zx}2_y)] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [\bar43m], [\bar4_z^{\star}2_x^{\star}m_{xy}], [4_z^{\star}m_x^{\star}m_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z^{\star}] 12 4 6 6
    [m_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}m_z] [(m_{y\bar{z}}2_{yz}m_x ], [m_{z\bar{x}}2_{zx}m_y], [ 2_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z], [2_{y\bar{z}}m_{yz}m_x], [2_{z\bar{x}}m_{zx}m_y)] [T_{1u}], [T_{2u}] [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [m\bar3m(m_{zx})], [m\bar3m(2_{zx}) ], [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], [ m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}^{\star}m_z] 12 2 12 6
    [2_x2_y2_z] [E_u] [m\bar3m ] [m\bar3], [23], [\bar4_z^{\star}2_xm_{xy}^{\star} ], [4_z^{\star}2_x2^{\star}_{xy}], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z^{\star} ] 12 12 0 6
    [2_{x\bar{y}}2_{xy}2_z] [(2_{y\bar{z}}2_{yz}2_x ], [2_{z\bar{x}}2_{zx}2_y)] [E_u] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}] [m\bar3m], [432], [\bar4_zm_x^{\star}2_{xy} ], [4^{\star}_z2^{\star}_x2_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}m_z^{\star} ] 12 4 0 6
    [2_z/m_z] [(2_x/m_x, 2_y/m_y)] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{x\bar{y}}] [m\bar3], [ 4_y/m_ym_zm_{zx}], [4_z^{\star}/m_z], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}m_z ] 12 4 0 12
    [2_{xy}/m_{xy}] [(2_{yz}/m_{yz} ], [2_{zx}/m_{zx}], [2_{x\bar{y}}/m_{x\bar{y}}], [2_{y\bar{z}}/m_{y\bar{z}} ], [2_{z\bar{x}}/m_{z\bar{x}})] [T_{1g}], [T_{2g}] [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z] [m\bar3m], [\bar3_rm_{xy} (2)], [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}m_z^{\star}] 12 2 0 12
    [m_z] [(m_x], [m_y)] [T_{1u}], [T_{2u} ] [4_z/m_zm_xm_{x\bar{y}} ] [m\bar3], [\bar4_xm_z2_{yz} ], [4_ym_zm_{zx}], [4_z/m_z], [2_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}m_z (2) ], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}m_z(2)], [2_z^{\star}/m_z ] 24 8 24 12
    [m_{xy}] [(m_{yz} ], [m_{zx}], [m_{x\bar{y}}], [m_{y\bar{z}}], [m_{z\bar{x}})] [T_{1u}] [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [m\bar3m], [\bar43m ], [\bar4_z2_xm_{xy}], [4_zm_xm_{xy}], [\bar3_rm_{xy} ], [\bar3_sm_{xy}], [3_rm_{xy}], [3_sm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}2_z^{\star} ], [2_{xy}^{\star}/m_{xy}] 24 4 24 12
    [2_z] [(2_x], [2_y)] Reducible [4_z/m_zm_xm_{x\bar{y}} ] [m\bar3], [23], [\bar4_y2_zm_{zx}], [4_y2_z2_{zx}], [\bar4_z^{\star}], [4_z^{\star}], [m_x^{\star}m_y^{\star}2_z], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}m_{xy}^{\star}2_z ], [2_x^{\star}2_y^{\star}2_z ], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}^{\star}2_z ], [2_z/m_z^{\star}] 24 8 6 12
    [2_{xy}] [(2_{yz} ], [ 2_{zx}], [2_{x\bar{y}}], [2_{y\bar{z}}], [2_{z\bar{x}})] [T_{2u}] [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}m_z ] [m\bar3m], [432 ], [\bar3_rm_{xy}], [\bar3_sm_{xy}], [3_r2_{xy}], [3_s2_{xy}], [\bar4_zm_x2_{xy}], [4_z2_x2_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}m_z^{\star} ], [2_{x\bar{y}}^{\star}2_{xy}2_z^{\star}], [2_{xy}/m_{xy}^{\star} ] 24 4 12 12
    [\bar 1] [T_{1g}], [T_{2g} ] [m\bar3m ] [\bar3_p(4)], [4_z/m_z(3)], [2_z^{\star}/m_z^{\star}(3)], [2_{xy}^{\star}/m_{xy}^{\star}(6) ] 24 24 0 24
    1 [T_{1u}], [T_{2u} ] [m\bar3m ] [\bar3_p(4)], [\bar4_z(3)], [4_z(3)], [m_z^{\star}(3)], [m_{xy}^{\star}(6) ], [2_z^{\star}(3)], [2_{xy}^{\star}(6)], [ \bar1^{\star} ] 48 48 48 24
    [u =x], y, z, [xy], [yz], [zx], [x\bar{y}], [y\bar{z}], [z\bar{x}], [x{^\prime}], [x{^\prime}{^\prime}], [y{^\prime} ], [y{^\prime}{^\prime}].
  • [F_1]: this point group is a proper subgroup of G given in the first column and expresses the symmetry of the ferroic phase in the first single-domain state [{\bf S}_1]. In accordance with IT A (2005[link]), five groups are given in two orientations (bold and normal type). Subscripts of generators in the group symbol specify their orientation in the Cartesian (rectangular) crystallophysical coordinate system of the group G (see Tables 3.4.2.5[link] and 3.4.2.6[link], and Figs. 3.4.2.3 [link]and 3.4.2.4[link]). In the cubic groups, the direction of the body diagonal is denoted by abbreviated symbols: [p\equiv[111]] (all positive), [q\equiv[\bar 1\bar 11]], [r\equiv[1\bar 1\bar 1] ], [s\equiv[\bar 1 1 \bar 1]]. In the hexagonal and trigonal groups, axes x′, y′ and x′′, y′′ of a Cartesian coordinate system are rotated about the z axis through 120 and 240°, respectively, from the crystallophysical Cartesian coordinate axes x and [y ].

    Symmetry groups in parentheses are groups conjugate to [F_1 ] under G (see Section 3.2.3.2[link] ). These are symmetry groups (stabilizers) of some domain states [{\bf S}_k] different from [{\bf S}_1] (for more details see Section 3.4.2.2.3[link]).

  • [\Gamma_{\eta}]: physically irreducible representation of the group G. This specifies the transformation properties of the principal tensor parameter of the phase transition in a continuum description and transformation properties of the primary order parameter [\eta] of the equitranslational phase transitions in the microscopic description. The letters A, B signify one-dimensional representations, and letters E and T two- and three-dimensional irreducible representations, respectively. Two letters T indicate that the symmetry descent [G\subset F_1] can be accomplished by two non-equivalent three-dimensional irreducible representations (see Table 3.1.3.2[link] ). `Reducible' denotes a reducible representation of G. In this case, there are always several non-equivalent reducible representations inducing the same descent [G\subset F_1 ] [for more detailed information see the software GI[\star ]KoBo-1 and Kopský (2001[link])].

    Knowledge of [\Gamma_{\eta}] enables one to determine for all ferroic transitions property tensors and their components that are different in all principal domain states, and, for equitranslational transitions only, microscopic displacements and/or ordering of atoms and molecules that are different in different basic (microscopic) domain states (for details see Section 3.1.3[link] , especially Table 3.1.3.1[link] , and Section 3.1.2[link] ).

  • [{N_G} {(F}{_1)}]: the normalizer of [F_1] in G (defined in Section 3.2.3.2.4[link] ) determines subgroups conjugate to [F_1] in G and specifies which domain states have the same symmetry (stabilizer in G). The number [n_F] of subgroups conjugate to [F_1 ] in G is [n_F =] [[G:N_G(F_{1})] =] [|G|:|N_G(F_{1})|] [see equation (3.4.2.36)[link]] and the number [d_F] of principal domain states with the same symmetry is [d_F =] [[N_G(F_{1}):F_1] =] [|N_G(F_{1})|:|F_1|] [see equation (3.4.2.35)[link]]. There are three possible cases:

    (i) [N_G(F_1)=G ]. There are no subgroups conjugate to [F_1] and the symmetry group [F_i] (stabilizer of [{\bf S}_i] in G) of all principal domain states [{\bf S}_1,{\bf S}_2,\ldots,{\bf S}_n] is equal to G, [F_i=G], for all [i=1,2,\ldots,n]; hence domain states cannot be distinguished by their symmetry. The group [F_1] is a normal subgroup of [G, F_1\triangleleft G] (see Section 3.2.3.2[link] ). This is always the case if there are just two single-domain states [{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_2], i.e. if the index of [F_1] in G equals two, [[G:F_1]=|G|:|F_1|=2].

    (ii) [N_G(F_1)=F_1]. Then any two domain states [{\bf S}_i], [{\bf S}_k] have different symmetry groups (stabilizers), [{\bf S}_i\neq{\bf S}_k\Leftrightarrow F_i\neq F_k ], i.e. there is a one-to-one correspondence between single-domain states and their symmetries, [{\bf S}_i\Leftrightarrow F_i]. In this case, principal domain states [{\bf S}_i] can be specified by their symmetries [F_i, i=1,2,\ldots,n]. The number [n_F] of different groups conjugate to [F_1] is equal to the index [[G:F_1]=|G|:|F_1|=n ].

    (iii) [F_1\subset N_G(F_1)\subset G]. Some, but not all, domain states [{\bf S}_i], [{\bf S}_k] have identical symmetry groups (stabilizers) [F_i=F_k]. The number [d_F] of domain states with the same symmetry group is [d_F=] [[N_G(F_1):F_1]=] [|N_G(F_1)|:|F_1| ] [see equation (3.4.2.35[link])], [1 \,\lt\, d_F \,\lt\, n ]. The number [n_F] of different groups conjugate to [F_1] is equal to the index [n_F=] [[G:N_G(F_1)] =] [|G|:|N_G(F_1)|] [see equation (3.4.2.36[link])] and in this case [1 \,\lt\, n_F \,\lt\, n]. It always holds that [n_Fd_F=n] [see equation (3.4.2.37[link])].

  • [{K}_{1{j}}]: twinning group of a domain pair ([{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_j]). This group is defined in Section 3.4.3.2[link]. It can be considered a colour (polychromatic) group involving c colours, where [c=[K_{1j}:F_1]], and is, therefore, defined by two groups [K_{1j}] and [F_1], and its full symbol is [K_{1j}[F_1]]. In this column only [K_{1j}] is given, since [F_1] appears in the second column of the table.

    If the group symbol of [K_{1j}] contains generators with the star symbol, [^{\star}], which signifies transposing operations of the domain pair ([{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_j]), then the symbol [K_{1j}[F_1]] denotes a dichromatic (`black-and-white') group signifying a completely transposable domain pair. In this special case, just the symbol [K_{1j}] containing stars [^{\star}] specifies the group [F_1 ] unequivocally.

    The number in parentheses after the group symbol of [K_{1j}] is equal to the number of twinning groups [K_{1k}] equivalent with [K_{1j}].

    In the continuum description, a twinning group is significant in at least in two instances:

    • (1) A twinning group [K_{1j}[F_1]] specifies the distinction of two domain states [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_j=g_{1j}{\bf S}_1 ], where [g_{1j} \in G] (see Sections 3.4.3.2[link] and 3.4.3.4[link]).

    • (2) A twinning group [K_{1j}[F_1]] may assist in signifying classes of equivalent domain pairs (orbits of domain pairs). In most cases, to a twinning group [F_{1j}] there corresponds just one class of equivalent domain pairs (an orbit) G([{\bf S}_1,{\bf S}_j ]); then a twinning group can represent this class of equivalent domain pairs. Nevertheless, in some cases two or more classes of equivalent domain pairs have a common twinning group. Then one has to add a switching operation [g_{1j}] to the twinning group, [K_{1j}[F_1](g_{1j})] (see the end of Section 3.4.3.2[link]). In this way, classes of equivalent domain pairs G([{\bf S}_1], [{\bf S}_j]) are denoted in synoptic Tables 3.4.2.7[link] and 3.4.3.6[link].

    Twinning groups given in column [K_{1j}] thus specify all G-orbits of domain pairs. The number of G-orbits and representative domain pairs for each orbit are determined by double cosets of group [F_1] (see Section 3.4.3.2[link]). Representative domain pairs from each orbit of domain pairs are further analysed in synoptic Table 3.4.3.4[link] (non-ferroelastic domain pairs) and in synoptic Table 3.4.3.6[link] (ferroelastic domain pairs).

    The set of the twinning groups [K_{1j}] given in this column is analogous to the concept of a complete twin defined as `an edifice comprising in addition to an original crystal (domain state [{\bf S}_1]) as many twinned crystals (domain states [{\bf S}_j]) as there are possible twin laws' (see Curien & Le Corre, 1958[link]). If a traditional definition of a twin law [`a geometrical relationship between two crystal components of a twin', see Section 3.3.2[link] and Koch (2004[link]); Curien & Le Corre (1958[link])] is applied sensu stricto to domain twins then one gets the following correspondence:

    • (i) a twin law of a non-ferroelastic domain twin is specified by the twinning group [K_{1j}] (see Section 3.4.3.3[link] and Table 3.4.3.4[link]);

    • (ii) two twin laws of two compatible ferroelastic domain twins, resulting from one ferroelastic single-domain pair [\{{\bf S}_1,{\bf S}_j\} ], are specified by two layer groups [\overline{\sf {J}}_{1j}] associated with the twinning group [K_{1j}] of this ferroelastic single-domain pair [\{({\bf S}_1,{\bf S}_j)\}] (see Section 3.4.3.4[link] and Table 3.4.3.6[link]).

  • n: number of principal single-domain states, the finest subdivision of domain states in a continuum description, [n=] [[G:F_1]=|G|:|F_1|] [see equation (3.4.2.11[link])].

  • [{d_{F}}]: number of principal domain states with the same symmetry group (stabilizer), [d_F=[N_G(F_1):F_1]=|N_G(F_1)|:|F_1| ] [see equation (3.4.2.35[link])]. If [d_F>1], then the group [F_1] does not specify the first single-domain state [{\bf S}_1]. The number [n_F] of subgroups conjugate with [F_1 ] is [n_F=n:d_F].

  • [{ n_e}]: number of ferroelectric single-domain states, [n_e=[G:C_1]=] [|G|:|C_1|], where [C_1] is the stabilizer (in G) of the spontaneous polarization in the first domain state [{\bf S}_1 ] [see equation (3.4.2.32)[link]]. The number [d_e] of principal domain states compatible with one ferroelectric domain state (degeneracy of ferroelectric domain states) equals [d_e=[C_1:F_1]=|C_1|:|F_1|] [see equation (3.4.2.33[link])].

    Aizu's classification of ferroelectric phases (Aizu, 1969[link]; see Table 3.4.2.3[link]): [n_e=n], fully ferroelectric; [1 \,\lt\, n_e \,\lt\, n], partially ferroelectric; [n_e=1], non-ferroelectric, the parent phase is polar and the spontaneous polarization in the ferroic phase is the same as in the parent phase; [n_e=0], non-ferroelectric, parent phase is non-polar.

  • [{ n_a}]: number of ferroelastic single-domain states, [n_a=] [[G:A_1]] [=|G|:|A_1|], where [A_1] is the stabilizer (in G) of the spontaneous strain in the first domain state [{\bf S}_1 ] [see equation (3.4.2.28[link])]. The number [d_a] of principal domain states compatible with one ferroelastic domain state (degeneracy of ferroelastic domain states) is given by [d_a=[A_1:F_1]=|A_1|:|F_1|] [see equation (3.4.2.29[link])].

    Aizu's classification of ferroelastic phases (Aizu, 1969[link]; see Table 3.4.2.3[link]): [n_a=n], fully ferroelastic; [1 \,\lt\, n_a \,\lt\, n ], partially ferroelastic; [n_e=1], non-ferroelastic.

Example 3.4.2.5. Orthorhombic phase of perovskite crystals. The parent phase has symmetry [G=m\bar3m] and the symmetry of the ferroic orthorhombic phase is [F_1=m_{x\bar y}2_{xy}m_z]. In Table 3.4.2.7[link], we find that [n=n_e], i.e. the phase is fully ferroelectric. Then we can associate with each principal domain state a spontaneous polarization. In column [K_{1j}] there are four twinning groups. As explained in Section 3.4.3[link], these groups represent four `twin laws' that can be characterized by the angle between the spontaneous polarization in single-domain state [{\bf S}_1] and [{\bf S}_j], [j=2,3,4,5]. If we choose [{\bf P}_{(s)}^{(1)}] along the direction [110] ([F_1] does not specify unambiguously this direction, since [d_F=2]!), then the angles between [{\bf P}_{(s)}^{(1)} ] and [{\bf P}_{(s)}^{(j)}], representing the `twin law' for these four twinning groups [m\bar3m(m_{zx})], [m\bar3m(2_{zx})], [4_z/m_zm_xm_{xy}], [m_{x\bar{y}}m_{xy}^{\star}m_z], are, respectively, 60, 120, 90 and 180°.

3.4.2.5. Basic (microscopic) domain states and their partition into translation subsets

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The examination of principal domain states performed in the continuum approach can be easily generalized to a microscopic description. Let us denote the space-group symmetry of the parent (high-symmetry) phase by [\cal G] and the space group of the ferroic (low-symmetry) phase by [{\cal F}_1], which is a proper subgroup of [{\cal G}], [{\cal F}_1\subset {\cal G} ]. Further we denote by [{\sf S}_1] a basic (microscopic) low-symmetry structure described by positions of atoms in the unit cell. The stabilizer [{\cal I}_{\cal G}]([{\sf S}_1]) of the basic structure [{\sf S}_1] in a single-domain orientation is equal to the space group [{\cal F}_1] of the ferroic (low-symmetry) phase, [{\cal I}_{\cal G}({\sf S}_1)={\cal F}_1. \eqno(3.4.2.41) ]

By applying a lost symmetry operation [{\sf g}_j] on [{\sf S}_1 ], one gets a crystallographically equivalent low-symmetry basic structure [{\sf S}_j], [{\sf g}_j{\sf S}_1 = {\sf S}_j \not= {\sf S}_1, \quad {\sf g}_j\in {\cal G}, \quad {\sf g}_j \not\in {\cal F}_1. \eqno(3.4.2.42) ]We may recall that [{\sf g}_j] is a space-group symmetry operation consisting of a rotation (point-group operation) [g_j] and a non-primitive translation [{\bf u}(g_j)], [{\sf g}_j=\{g_j|{\bf u}(g_j)\}] (see Section 1.2.3[link] ). The symbol [\{g_j|{\bf u}(g_j)\}] is called a Seitz space-group symbol (Bradley & Cracknell, 1972[link]). The product (composition law) of two Seitz symbols is [\{g_1|{\bf u}(g_1)\}\{g_2|{\bf u}(g_2)\}=\{g_1g_2|g_1{\bf u}(g_2)+ {\bf u}(g_1)\}. \eqno(3.4.2.43) ]

All crystallographically equivalent low-symmetry basic structures form a [{\cal G}]-orbit and can be calculated from the first basic structure [{\sf S}_1] in the following way: [{\cal G}{\sf S}_1=\{{\sf S}_1, {\sf S}_2,\ldots, {\sf S}_j\ldots, {\sf S}_N\} = \{{\sf e}{\sf S}_1, {\sf g}_2{\sf S}_1,\ldots, {\sf g}_j{\sf S}_1\ldots, {\sf g}_N{\sf S}_1\}, \eqno(3.4.2.44) ]where [{\sf g}_1=] [{\sf e},] [{\sf g}_2,\ldots, {\sf g}_j,\ldots,{\sf g}_N ] are the representatives of the left cosets [{\sf g}_j{\cal F}_{1} ] of the decomposition of [{\cal G}], [{\cal G}={\cal F}_{1} \cup {\sf g}_2{\cal F}_{1} \cup\ldots\cup {\sf g}_j{\cal F}_{1} \cup\ldots\cup {\sf g}_N{\cal F}_{1}. \eqno(3.4.2.45) ]These crystallographically equivalent low-symmetry structures are called basic (elementary) domain states.

The number N of basic domain states is equal to the number of left cosets in the decomposition (3.4.2.45[link]). As we shall see in next section, this number is finite [see equation (3.4.2.60[link])], though the groups [{\cal G}] and [{\cal F}_{1}] consist of an infinite number of operations.

In a microscopic description, a basic (elementary) domain state is described by positions of atoms in the unit cell. Basic domain states that are related by translations suppressed at the phase transition are called translational or antiphase domain states. These domain states have the same macroscopic properties. The attribute `to have the same macroscopic properties' divides all basic domain states into classes of translational domain states.

In a microscopic description, a ferroic phase transition is accompanied by a lowering of space-group symmetry from a parent space group [{\cal G} ], with translation subgroup [{\cal T}] and point group G, to a low-symmetry space group [{\cal F}_1], with translation subgroup [{\cal U}_1] and point group [F_1]. There exists a unique intermediate group [{\cal M}_1], called the Hermann group, which has translation subgroup [{\cal T}] and point group [M_1=F_1] (see e.g. Hahn & Wondratschek, 1994[link]; Wadhawan, 2000[link]; Wondratschek & Aroyo, 2001[link]): [\eqalignno{{\cal F}_{1} \,&{\buildrel {c}\over {\subseteq}}\, {\cal M}_1 \,{\buildrel {t} \over {\subseteq}}\, \cal{G}, &(3.4.2.46)\cr F_1 &= M_1 \subseteq G, &(3.4.2.47)\cr {\cal U}_1&\subseteq {\cal T} = {\cal T},&(3.4.2.48)}%fd3.4.2.48 ]where [{\buildrel {c}\over {\subset}}] denotes an equiclass subgroup (a descent at which only the translational subgroup is reduced but the point group is preserved) and [{\buildrel {t}\over {\subset}}] signifies a equitranslational subgroup (only the point group descends but the translational subgroup does not change). Group [{\cal M}_1] is a maximal subgroup of [{\cal G}] that preserves all macroscopic properties of the basic domain state [{\sf S}_1] with symmetry [{\cal F}_1].

At this point we have to make an important note. Any space-group symmetry descent [{\cal G}\subset {\cal F}_1] requires that the lengths of the basis vectors of the translation group [{\cal U}_1] of the ferroic space group [{\cal F}_1] are commensurate with basic vectors of the translational group [{\cal T}] of the parent space group [{\cal G}]. It is usually tacitly assumed that this condition is fulfilled, although in real phase transitions this is never the case. Lattice parameters depend on temperature and are, therefore, different in parent and ferroic phases. At ferroelastic phase transitions the spontaneous strain changes the lengths of the basis vectors in different ways and at first-order phase transitions the lattice parameters change abruptly.

To assure the validity of translational symmetry descents, we have to suppress all distortions of the crystal lattice. This condition, called the high-symmetry approximation (Zikmund, 1984[link]) or parent clamping approximation (PCA) (Janovec et al., 1989[link]; Wadhawan, 2000[link]), requires that the lengths of the basis vectors [{\bf a}^{\kern1pt f}] [{\bf b}^{\kern1pt f}] [{\bf c}^{\kern1pt f} ] of the translation group [{\cal U}_1] of the ferroic space group [{\cal F}_1] are either exactly the same as, or are integer multiples of, the basic vectors [{\bf a}^{\kern1pt p}] [{\bf b}^{\kern1pt p}] [{\bf c}^{\kern1pt p}] of the translational group [{\cal T}] of the parent space group [{\cal G}]. Then the relation between the primitive basis vectors [{\bf a}^{\kern1pt f}] [{\bf b}^{\kern1pt f} ] [{\bf c}^{\kern1pt f}] of [{\cal U}_1] and the primitive basis vectors [{\bf a}^{\kern1pt p}] [{\bf b}^{\kern1pt p}] [{\bf c}^{\kern1pt p}] of [{\cal T}] can be expressed as [\pmatrix{{\bf a}^{\kern1pt f},\!\! & {\bf b}^{\kern1pt f},\!\! & {\bf c}^{\kern1pt f}}= \pmatrix{{\bf a}^{\kern1pt p},\!\! &{\bf b}^{\kern1pt p},\!\! & {\bf c}^{\kern1pt p}} \left(\matrix{m_{11} &m_{12} &m_{13} \cr m_{21} &m_{22} &m_{23} \cr m_{13} &m_{23} &m_{33}}\right), \eqno(3.4.2.49) ]where [m_{ij}], [i, j=1,2,3], are integers.

Throughout this part, the parent clamping approximation is assumed to be fulfilled.

Now we can return to the partition of the set of basic domain states into translational subsets. Let [\{{\sf S}_1,{\sf S}_2,\ldots,{\sf S}_{d_{t}}\} ] be the set of all basic translational domain states that can be generated from [{\sf S}_1] by lost translations. The stabilizer (in [{\cal G} ]) of this set is the Hermann group, [{\cal I}_{\cal G}\{{\sf S}_1,{\sf S}_2,\ldots,{\sf S}_{d_t}\} = {\cal M}_1, \eqno(3.4.2.50) ]which plays the role of the intermediate group. The number of translational subsets and the relation between these subsets is determined by the decomposition of [{\cal G}] into left cosets of [{\cal M}_1]: [\eqalignno{{\cal G}&=\{g_1|{\bf v}(g_1)\}{\cal M}_1 \cup \{g_2|{\bf v}(g_2)\}{\cal M}_1 \cup\ldots\cup \{g_j|{\bf v}(g_j)\}{\cal M}_1 &\cr &\quad\cup\ldots\cup \{g_{n}|{\bf v}(g_{n})\}{\cal M}_1. &(3.4.2.51)} ]Representatives [{\sf g}_j=\{g_j|{\bf u}(g_j)\}] are space-group operations, where [g_j] is a point-group operation and [{\bf u}(g_j) ] is a non-primitive translation (see Section 1.2.3[link] ).

We note that the Hermann group [{\cal M}_1] can be found in the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 as the equitranslational subgroup of [{\cal G}] with the point-group descent [G \subset F_1 ] for any space group [{\cal G}] and any point group [F_1] of the ferroic phase.

The decomposition of the point group G into left cosets of the point group [F_1] is given by equation (3.4.2.10[link]): [G=g_1F_{1} \cup g_2F_{1} \cup\ldots\cup g_jF_{1}\cup\ldots\cup g_{n}F_{1}. \eqno(3.4.2.52) ]Since the space groups [{\cal M}_1] and [{\cal F}_1] have identical point groups, [M_1=F_1], the decomposition (3.4.2.51[link]) is identical with a decomposition of G into left cosets of [M_1]; one can, therefore, choose for the representatives in (3.4.2.10[link]) the point-group parts of the representatives [\{g_j|{\bf u}(g_j)\}] in decomposition (3.4.2.51[link]). Both decompositions comprise the same number of left cosets, i.e. corresponding indices are equal; therefore, the number of subsets, comprising only translational basic domain states, is equal to the number n of principal domain states: [n =[{\cal G}:{\cal M}_1]=[G:F_1]=|G|:|F_1|, \eqno(3.4.2.53) ]where [|G|] and [|F_1|] are the number of operations of G and [F_1], respectively.

The first `representative' basic domain state [{\sf S}_j] of each subset can be obtained from the first basic domain state [{\sf S}_1]: [{\sf S}_j =\{g_j|{\bf v}(g_j)\}{\sf S}_1, \quad j=1,2,\ldots,n, \eqno(3.4.2.54) ]where [\{g_j|{\bf v}(g_j)\}] are representatives of left cosets of [{\cal M}_1] in the decomposition (3.4.2.51[link]).

Now we determine basic domain states belonging to the first subset (first principal domain state). Equiclass groups [{\cal M}_1] and [{\cal F}_1 ] have the same point-group operations and differ only in translations. The decomposition of [{\cal M}_1] into left cosets of [{\cal F}_1 ] can therefore be written in the form[{\cal M}_1=\{e|{\bf t}_1\}{\cal F}_1\cup \{e|{\bf t}_2\}{\cal F}_1 \cup\ldots\cup \{e|{\bf t}_k\}{\cal F}_1 \cup\ldots\cup \{e|{\bf t}_{d_{t}}\}{\cal F}_1, \eqno(3.4.2.55) ]where e is the identity point-group operation and [{\cal T}_k ], [k=1,2\ldots, d_t], are lost translations that can be identified with the representatives in the decomposition of [{\cal T}] into left cosets of [{\cal U}_1]: [{\cal T}={\bf t}_{1}{\cal U}_1+{\bf t}_{2}{\cal U}_1+\ldots+ {\bf t}_k{\cal U}_1 +\ldots+ {\bf t}_{d_t}{\cal U}_1. \eqno(3.4.2.56) ]The number [d_t] of basic domain states belonging to one principal domain state will be called a translational degeneracy. For the translations [{\bf t}_1,{\bf t}_2,\ldots,{\bf t}_k,\ldots,{\bf t}_{d_t}], one can choose vectors that lead from the origin of a `superlattice' primitive unit cell of [{\cal U}_1] to lattice points of [{\cal T}] located within or on the side faces of this `superlattice' primitive unit cell. The number [d_t] of such lattice points is equal to the ratio [v_{\cal F}:v_{\cal G} ], where [v_{\cal F}] and [v_{\cal G}] are the volumes of the primitive unit cells of the low-symmetry and parent phases, respectively.

The number [d_t] can be also expressed as the determinant det[(m_{ij})] of the [(3\times 3)] matrix of the coefficients [m_{ij}] that in equation (3.4.2.49[link]) relate the primitive basis vectors [{\bf a}^{\kern1pt f},{\bf b}^{\kern1pt f},{\bf c}^{\kern1pt f}] of [{\cal U}_1] to the primitive basis vectors [{\bf a}^{\kern1pt p},{\bf b}^{\kern1pt p},{\bf c}^{\kern1pt p} ] of [{\cal T}] (Van Tendeloo & Amelinckx, 1974[link]; see also Example 2.5[link] in Section 3.2.3.3[link] ). Finally, the number [d_t] equals the ratio [Z_{\cal F}:Z_{\cal G}], where [Z_{\cal F}] and [Z_{\cal G}] are the numbers of chemical formula units in the primitive unit cell of the ferroic and parent phases, respectively. Thus we get for the translational degeneracy [d_f] three expressions: [d_t=[{\cal M}_1: {\cal F}_1]=[{\cal T}:{\cal U}]=v_{\cal F}:v_{\cal G}= {\rm det}(m_{ij})=Z_{\cal F}:Z_{\cal G}. \eqno(3.4.2.57) ]The basic domain states belonging to the first subset of translational domain states are [{\sf S}_j=\{e|{\bf t}_k\}{\sf S}_1, \quad k=1,2,\ldots,d_t, \eqno(3.4.2.58) ]where [\{e|{\bf t}_k\}] is a representative from the decomposition (3.4.2.55[link]).

The partitioning we have just described provides a useful labelling of basic domain states: Any basic domain state can be given a label [ab], where the first integer [a=1,2,\ldots,n] specifies the principal domain state (translational subset) and the integer [b=1,2,\ldots,d_t] designates the the domain state within a subset. With this convention the kth basic domain state in the jth subset can be obtained from the first basic domain state [{\sf S}_1={\sf S}_{11}] (see Proposition 3.2.3.30[link] in Section 3.2.3.3[link] ): [{\sf S}_{jk}=\{g_j|{\bf v}(g_j)\}\{e|{\bf t}_k\}{\sf S}_{11}, \quad j=1,2,\ldots,n, \quad k=1,2,\ldots,d_t. \eqno(3.4.2.59) ]In a shorthand version, the letter [{\sf S}] can be omitted and the symbol can be written in the form [a_b], where the `large' number a signifies the principal domain state and the subscript b (translational index) specifies a basic domain state compatible with the principal domain state a.

The number n of translational subsets (which can be associated with principal domain states) times the translational degeneracy [d_t] (number of translational domain states within one translational subset) is equal to the total number N of all basic domain states: [\eqalignno{N&=nd_t=(|G|:|F_1|)(v_{\cal F}:v_{\cal G})= (|G|:|F_1|){\rm det}(m_{ij})&\cr&=(|G|:|F_1|)(Z_{\cal F}:Z_{\cal G}). &(3.4.2.60)\cr} ]

Example 3.4.2.6. Basic domain states in gadolinium molybdate (GMO). Gadolinium molybdate [Gd2(MoO4)3] undergoes a non-equitranslational ferroic phase transition with parent space group [{\cal G}=P\bar42_1m] [(D_{2d}^3)] and with ferroic space group [{\cal F}_1=Pba2] [(C_{2v}^8)] (see Section 3.1.2[link] ). From equation (3.4.2.53[link]) we get n = [|\bar42m|:|mm2| =] [8:4 = 2], i.e. there are two subsets of translational domain states corresponding to two principal domain states. In the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 one finds for the space group [P\bar42_1m] and the point group [mm2] the corresponding equitranslational subgroup [{\cal M}_1=Cmm2 ] [(C_{2v}^{11})] with vectors of the conventional orthorhombic unit cell (in the parent clamping approximation) [{\bf a}^{o}={\bf a}^{t}-{\bf b}^{t} ], [{\bf b}^{o}={\bf a}^{t}+{\bf b}^{t}], [{\bf c}^{o}={\bf c}^{t} ], where [{\bf a}^{t},] [{\bf b}^{t},] [{\bf c}^{t}] is the basis of the tetragonal space group [P\bar42_1m]. Hence, according to equation (3.4.2.49[link]), [\left(\matrix{{\bf a}^o,\!\! &{\bf b}^o,\!\! &{\bf c}^o}\right) = \left(\matrix{{\bf a}^t,\!\! &{\bf b}^t,\!\! &{\bf c}^t}\right) \left(\matrix{1 &1 &0 \cr -1 &1 &0 \cr 0 &0 &1}\right). \eqno(3.4.2.61) ]The determinant of the transformation matrix equals two, therefore, according to equation (3.4.2.57[link]), each principal domain state can contain [d_t=2] translational domain states that are related by lost translation [{\bf a}^{t}] or [{\bf b}^{t}]. In all, there are four basic domain states (for more details see Barkley & Jeitschko, 1973[link]; Janovec, 1976[link]; Wondratschek & Jeitschko, 1976[link]).

Example 3.4.2.7. Basic domain states in calomel crystals. Crystals of calomel, Hg2Cl2, consist of almost linear Cl—Hg—Hg—Cl molecules aligned parallel to the c axis. The centres of gravity of these molecules form in the parent phase a tetragonal body-centred parent phase with the conventional tetragonal basis at, bt, ct and with space group [{\cal G}=I4/mmm]. The structure of this phase projected onto the [z=0] plane is depicted in the middle of Fig. 3.4.2.5[link] as a solid square with four full circles and one empty circle representing the centres of gravity of the Hg2Cl2 molecules at the levels [z=0] and [z=c/2], respectively.

[Figure 3.4.2.5]

Figure 3.4.2.5 | top | pdf |

Four basic single-domain states [{{\sf S}_1}\equiv 1_1], [{{\sf S}_2}\equiv 1_2], [{{\sf S}_3}\equiv 2_1], [{{\sf S}_4}\equiv 2_2 ] of the ferroic phase of a calomel (Hg2Cl2) crystal. Full [\bullet] and empty [\circ] circles represent centres of gravity of Hg2Cl2 molecules at the levels [z=0] and [z=c/2], respectively, projected onto the [z=0] plane. The parent tetragonal phase is depicted in the centre of the figure with a full square representing the primitive unit cell. Arrows are exaggerated spontaneous shifts of molecules in the ferroic phase. Dotted squares depict conventional unit cells of the orthorhombic basic domain states in the parent clamping approximation. If the parent clamping approximation is lifted, these unit cells would be represented by rectangles elongated parallel to the arrows.

The ferroic phase has point-group symmetry [F_1=m_{xy}m_{x\bar y}2_z ], hence there are n = [|\bar42m|:|m_{xy}m_{x\bar y}2_z|] = 2 ferroelastic principal domain states. The conventional orthorhombic basis is [{\bf a}^{o}={\bf a}^{t}-{\bf b}^{t}, ] [{\bf b}^{o}={\bf a}^{t}+{\bf b}^{t},] [{\bf c}^{ o}={\bf c}^{t} ] (see upper left corner of Fig. 3.4.2.5[link]). This is the same situation as in the previous example, therefore, according to equations (3.4.2.57[link]) and (3.4.2.61[link]), the translational degeneracy [d_t=2], i.e. each ferroelastic domain state can contain two basic domain states.

The structure [{\sf S}_1] of the ferroic phase in the parent clamping approximation is depicted in the left-hand part of Fig. 3.4.2.5[link] with a dotted orthorhombic conventional unit cell. The arrows represent exaggerated spontaneous shifts of the molecules. These shifts are frozen-in displacements of a transverse acoustic soft mode with the k vector along the [110] direction in the first domain state [{\sf S}_1], hence all molecules in the (110) plane passing through the origin O are shifted along the [[1\bar10]] direction, whereas those in the neighbouring parallel planes are shifted along the antiparallel direction [[\bar110]] (the indices are related to the tetragonal coordinate system). The symmetry of [{\sf S}_1] is described by the space group [{\cal F}_1=Amam] [(D^{17}_{2h})]; this symbol is related to the conventional orthorhombic basis and the origin of this group is shifted by [{\bf a}^{t}/2] or [{\bf b}] with respect to the origin 0 of the group [{\cal G}=I4/mmm ].

Three more basic domain states [{\sf S}_2], [{\sf S}_3] and [{\sf S}_4] can be obtained, according to equation (3.4.2.44[link]), from [{\sf S}_1] by applying representatives of the left cosets in the resolution of [{\cal G}] [see equation (3.4.2.42[link])], for which one can find the expression[{\cal G}=\{1|000\}{\cal F}_1 \cup \{1|100\}{\cal F}_1 \cup \{4_z|000\}{\cal F}_1 \cup \{4_{z}{^3}|000\}{\cal F}_1.\eqno(3.4.2.62) ]

All basic domain states [{{\sf S}_1},] [{{\sf S}_2},] [{{\sf S}_3}] and [{{\sf S}_4}] are depicted in Fig. 3.4.2.5[link]. Domain states [{{\sf S}_1}] and [{{\sf S}_2}], and similarly [{{\sf S}_3}] and [{{\sf S}_4}], are related by lost translation [{\bf a}^{t}] or [{\bf b}^{t}]. Thus the four basic domain states [{{\sf S}_1},] [{{\sf S}_2},] [{{\sf S}_3} ] and [{{\sf S}_4}] can be partitioned into two translational subsets [\{{{\sf S}_1},{{\sf S}_2}\}] and [\{{{\sf S}_3},{{\sf S}_4}\}]. Basic domain states forming one subset have the same value of the secondary macroscopic order parameter [\lambda], which is in this case the difference [{\varepsilon}_{11}-{\varepsilon}_{22}] of the components of a symmetric second-rank tensor [\varepsilon], e.g. the permittivity or the spontaneous strain (which is zero in the parent clamping approximation).

This partition provides a useful labelling of basic domain states: [{{\sf S}_1}\equiv 1_1,] [{{\sf S}_2}\equiv 1_2,] [{{\sf S}_3}\equiv 2_1, ] [{{\sf S}_1}\equiv 2_2], where the first number signifies the ferroic (orientational) domain state and the subscript (translational index) specifies the basic domain state with the same ferroic domain state.

Symmetry groups (stabilizers in [{\cal G}]) of basic domain states can be calculated from a space-group version of equation (3.4.2.13[link]): [\eqalign{{\cal F}_2&=\{1|100\}{\cal F}_2\{1|100\}^{-1}={\cal F}_1\semi\cr \ {\cal F}_3&= \{4_z|000\}{\cal F}_2\{4_z|000\}^{-1}=Bbmm,} ]with the same conventional basis, and [{\cal F}_4=\{1|100\}{\cal F}_3\{1|100\}^{-1}] [={\cal F}_3], where the origin of these groups is shifted by [{\bf a}^{t}/2 ] or [{\bf b}] with respect to the origin [] of the group [{\cal G}=I4/mmm].

In general, a space-group-symmetry descent [{\cal G}\supset {\cal F}_1 ] can be performed in two steps:

  • (1) An equitranslational symmetry descent [{\cal G}\,{\buildrel {t}\over {\supseteq}}\, {\cal M}_1 ], where [{\cal M}_1] is the equitranslational subgroup of [{\cal G}] (Hermann group), which is unequivocally specified by space group [{\cal G}] and by the point group [F_1] of the space group [{\cal F}_1]. The Hermann group [{\cal M}_1] can be found in the software GI[\star]KoBo-1 or, in some cases, in IT A (2005[link]) under the entry `Maximal non-isomorphic subgroups, type I'.

  • (2) An equiclass symmetry descent [{\cal M}_1\,{\buildrel{c}\over{\supseteq} }\,{\cal F}_1 ], which can be of three kinds [for more details see IT A (2005[link]), Section 2.2.15[link] ]:

    • (i) Space groups [{\cal M}_1] and [{\cal F}_1 ] have the same conventional unit cell. These descents occur only in space groups [{\cal M}_1] with centred conventional unit cells and the lost translations are some or all centring translations of the unit cell of [{\cal M}_1]. In many cases, the descent [{\cal M}_1\,{\buildrel{c}\over{\supseteq} }\,{\cal F}_1 ] can be found in the main tables of IT A (2005[link]), under the entry `Maximal non-isomorphic subgroups, type IIa'. Gadolinium molybdate belongs to this category.

    • (ii) The conventional unit cell of [{\cal M}_1 ] is larger than that of [{\cal F}_1]. Some vectors of the conventional unit cell of [{\cal U}_1] are multiples of that of [{\cal T}]. In many cases, the descent [{\cal M}_1\,{\buildrel{c}\over{\supseteq} }\,{\cal F}_1 ] can be found in the main tables of IT A (2005[link]), under the entry `Maximal non-isomorphic subgroups, type IIb'.

    • (iii) Space group [{\cal F}_1] is an isomorphic subgroup of [{\cal M}_1], i.e. both groups are of the same space-group type (with the same Hermann–Mauguin symbol) or of the enantiomorphic space-group type. Each space group has an infinite number of isomorphic subgroups. Maximal isomorphic subgroups of lowest index are tabulated in IT A (2005[link]), under the entry `Maximal non-isomorphic subgroups, type IIc'.

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