International
Tables for Crystallography Volume D Physical properties of crystals Edited by A. Authier © International Union of Crystallography 2013 |
International Tables for Crystallography (2013). Vol. D, ch. 1.1, p. 7
Section 1.1.3.1.1. Linear forms^{a}Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France |
A linear form in the space is written where is independent of the chosen basis and the 's are the coordinates of T in the dual basis. Let us consider now a bilinear form in the product space of two vector spaces with n and p dimensions, respectively:
The np quantities 's are, by definition, the components of a tensor of rank 2 and the form is invariant if one changes the basis in the space . The tensor is said to be twice covariant. It is also possible to construct a bilinear form by replacing the spaces and by their respective conjugates and . Thus, one writes where is the doubly contravariant form of the tensor, whereas and are mixed, once covariant and once contravariant.
We can generalize by defining in the same way tensors of rank 3 or higher by using trilinear or multilinear forms. A vector is a tensor of rank 1, and a scalar is a tensor of rank 0.