Tables for
Volume F
Crystallography of biological macromolecules
Edited by M. G. Rossmann and E. Arnold

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. F, ch. 10.1, p. 198   | 1 | 2 |

Section Internal ice or phase transition

H. Hopea*

aDepartment of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616-5295, USA
Correspondence e-mail: Internal ice or phase transition

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If there are good indications that ice formation does start internally, or that a destructive phase transition takes place, an attempt can be made to modify the internal water structure. An important consideration of Petsko (1975[link]) was never to allow large deviations from equilibrium. This can be accomplished by a slow, gradual change in μ(H2O, solution), allowing enough time for the crystal to re-establish equilibrium. A number of successful experiments were reported.


Petsko, G. A. (1975). Protein crystallography at sub-zero temperatures: cryoprotective mother liquors for protein crystals. J. Mol. Biol. 96, 381–392.

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