International
Tables for Crystallography Volume F Crystallography of biological macromolecules Edited by M. G. Rossmann and E. Arnold © International Union of Crystallography 2006 
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. F, ch. 2.1, pp. 5253
Section 2.1.4.1. Diffraction by one electron^{a}Laboratory of Biophysical Chemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands 
The scattering of an Xray beam by a crystal results from interaction between the electric component of the beam and the electrons in the crystal. The magnetic component has hardly any effect and can be disregarded.
If a monochromatic polarized beam hits an electron, the electron starts to oscillate in the direction of the electric vector of the incident beam (Fig. 2.1.4.1). This oscillating electron acts as the aerial of a transmitter and radiates Xrays with the same or lower frequency as the incident beam. The frequency change is due to the Compton effect: the photons of the incident beam collide with the electron and lose part of their energy. This is inelastic scattering, and the scattered radiation is incoherent with the incident beam. Compton scattering contributes to the background in a diffraction experiment. In elastic scattering, the scattered radiation has the same wavelength as the incident radiation, and this is the radiation responsible for the interference effects in diffraction. It was shown by Thomson that if the electron is completely free the following hold:
In terms of energy, The scattered energy per unit solid angle is
It was shown by Klein & Nishina (1929) [see also Heitler (1966)] that the scattering by an electron can be discussed in terms of the classical Thomson scattering if the quantum energy . This is not true for very short Xray wavelengths. For , and are exactly equal, but for , is 0.0243 times . Since wavelengths in macromolecular crystallography are usually in the range 0.8–2.5 Å, the classical approximation is allowed. It should be noted that:

References
Heitler, W. G. (1966). The quantum theory of radiation, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press.Google ScholarKlein, O. & Nishina, Y. (1929). Über die Streuung von Strahlung durch freie Elektronen nach der neuen relativistischen Quantendynamik von Dirac. Z. Phys. 52, 853–868.Google Scholar