Tables for
Volume G
Definition and exchange of crystallographic data
Edited by S. R. Hall and B. McMahon

International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. G, ch. 5.1, p. 482

Section Markup languages

H. J. Bernsteina*

aDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, Kramer Science Center, Dowling College, Idle Hour Blvd, Oakdale, NY 11769, USA
Correspondence e-mail: Markup languages

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A markup language allows the raw text of a document to be annotated with interleaved `markup' specifying layout information for the bracketed text. For document processing, the implicit assumption of the use of an internal database became formalized with the gradual adoption of agreed markup languages in the late 1980s and early 1990s [e.g. [\hbox{\TeX}] (Knuth, 1986[link]), SGML (ISO, 1986[link]), RTF (Andrews, 1987[link]), HTML (Berners-Lee, 1989[link])]. When used in this manner, such a language has the implicit ordering assumption of reading forward in the document. However, with modern demands for multidimensional layout and document reflow, applications managing such documents achieve the best performance and flexibility when they store the entire marked-up document in an internal data structure that allows random access to all the information.


ISO (1986). ISO 8879. Information processing – Text and office systems – Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.
Andrews, N. (1987). Rich Text Format standard makes transferring text easier. Microsoft Syst. J. 2, 63–67.
Berners-Lee, T. (1989). Information management: a proposal. Internal Report. Geneva: CERN. .
Knuth, D. E. (1986). The [\hbox{\TeX}]book. Computers and typesetting, Vol. A. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

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