International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume H
Powder diffraction
Edited by C. J. Gilmore, J. A. Kaduk and H. Schenk

International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 2.1, pp. 40-41

Section 2.1.6.3.1.2. Metal filters

A. Kerna*

aBruker AXS, Östliche Rheinbrückenstrasse 49, Karlsruhe 76187, Germany
Correspondence e-mail: arnt.kern@bruker-axs.de

2.1.6.3.1.2. Metal filters

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Metal filters are the most frequently used devices for monochromatization of X-rays in laboratory diffractometers. Metal filters represent single-band bandpass devices where monochromatization is based on the K absorption edge of the filter material to selectively allow transmission of the Kα characteristic lines while filtering white radiation, Kβ radiation (hence they are frequently known as `Kβ filters'), and other characteristic lines.

A properly selected metal filter has its K absorption edge right between the energies of the Kα and Kβ characteristic lines of the source. As a rule of thumb, this is achieved by choosing an element just one atomic number less than the X-ray source target material in the periodic table. For heavy target materials such as Mo or Ag, this rule can be extended to two atomic numbers. A list of metal filters suitable for the most commonly used target materials is given in Table 2.1.3[link].

A major disadvantage of metal filters is that they cannot completely eliminate Kβ radiation at bearable intensity losses. In addition, they introduce absorption edges at the high-energy (low-angle) side of diffraction peaks, the magnitudes of these being dependent on the wavelength as well as on the filter material and its thickness. While for point detectors absorption edges are usually obscured by counting statistics, they are much more readily visible to position-sensitive detectors owing to the high number of counts that are typically collected.

Positioning of the metal filter does not make a difference in terms of filtering of Kβ or white radiation, but can in the case of specimen fluorescence. Placing the metal filter in the diffracted beam can filter some fluorescence radiation, unless the specimen contains the same element as the metal filter. Taking Cu radiation as an example, most fluorescence radiation excited by Ni in the specimen will pass through a diffracted-beam Ni filter. In this instance, the Kβ filter should be mounted in the incident beam to suppress Cu Kβ radiation, which is very efficient at exciting Ni fluorescence. Balanced-filter techniques, employing two (or more) filters that have absorption edges just above and below Kα, are no longer in use as the resulting bandpass is still much wider than that of crystal monochromators at even higher intensity losses.

Metal filters are generally supplemented by some energy discrimination by the detector to remove the high-energy white radiation from the X-ray source. The effectiveness of this white-radiation removal depends upon the energy resolution of the detector, and is discussed in Section 2.1.7[link] for the different detector technologies currently in use. Recent improvements in the energy-discrimination capabilities for silicon strip detectors now even allow filtering of Kβ radiation, completely eliminating the need for metal filters (see Section 2.1.7.2.3.2[link]). As a consequence, the use of metal filters is likely to decline.

Another type of metal filter is represented by absorbers, e.g. Cu foils, which are used at high intensities to avoid detector saturation or even damage. Absorbers can be motorized and switched in and out automatically depending on the actual count rates that are detected (Fig. 2.1.15[link]a). Several absorbers with different thickness may be combined in the form of motorized rotating absorbers (Fig. 2.1.15[link]b).

[Figure 2.1.15]

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Motorized switchable (a) and rotating (b) absorbers.








































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