International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 2.3, pp. 66-101
https://doi.org/10.1107/97809553602060000938

Chapter 2.3. Neutron powder diffraction

Contents

  • 2.3. Neutron powder diffraction  (pp. 66-101) | html | pdf | chapter contents |
    • 2.3.1. Introduction to the diffraction of thermal neutrons  (pp. 66-67) | html | pdf |
    • 2.3.2. Neutrons and neutron diffraction – pertinent details  (pp. 67-70) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.2.1. Properties of the neutron  (p. 67) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.2.2. Neutron scattering lengths  (pp. 67-68) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.2.3. Refractive index for neutrons  (pp. 68-69) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.2.4. Neutron attenuation  (p. 69) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.2.5. Magnetic form factors and magnetic scattering lengths  (pp. 69-70) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.2.6. Structure factors  (p. 70) | html | pdf |
    • 2.3.3. Neutron sources  (pp. 70-80) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.3.1. The earliest neutron sources  (pp. 70-72) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.3.2. Fission reactors for neutron-beam research  (pp. 72-73) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.3.3. Spallation neutron sources  (pp. 73-77) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.3.4. Neutron beam tubes and guides  (pp. 77-80) | html | pdf |
    • 2.3.4. Diffractometers  (pp. 80-92) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.4.1. Constant-wavelength neutron diffractometers  (pp. 80-84) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.4.1.1. Collimation  (pp. 80-81) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.4.1.2. Monochromators  (pp. 81-82) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.4.1.3. Neutron detectors  (pp. 82-84) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.4.1.4. Resolution and intensity  (p. 84) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.4.2. Time-of-flight (TOF) diffractometers  (pp. 84-88) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.4.2.1. Instrument resolution and design  (p. 86) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.4.2.2. Detection  (pp. 86-88) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.4.3. Variations on a theme  (pp. 88-91) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.4.4. Comparison of CW and TOF diffractometers  (pp. 91-92) | html | pdf |
    • 2.3.5. Experimental considerations  (pp. 92-98) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.5.1. Preliminary considerations  (pp. 92-94) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.5.2. Sample-related factors  (pp. 94-96) | html | pdf |
      • 2.3.5.3. Sample environment and in situ experiments  (pp. 96-98) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.5.3.1. Sample containers  (p. 96) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.5.3.2. Non-ambient temperature  (pp. 96-98) | html | pdf |
        • 2.3.5.3.3. Uniaxial stress  (p. 98) | html | pdf |
    • 2.3.6. Concluding remarks  (p. 98) | html | pdf |
    • References | html | pdf |
    • Figures
      • Fig. 2.3.1. Representations of the scattering of X-rays and neutrons by selected elements  (p. 66) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.2. Comparison of X-ray and neutron powder-diffraction patterns from rutile, TiO2  (p. 67) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.3. The magnetic form factor for Mn2+ compared with the normalized X-ray form factor and the normalized neutron nuclear scattering length  (p. 67) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.4. Magnetic structure for MnO proposed by Shull et al  (p. 68) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.5. The Maxwellian distribution of neutron wavelengths produced within moderators at different temperatures  (p. 72) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.6. The NBSR at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research  (p. 73) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.7. Schematic diagram of the HFR operated by the Institut Laue–Langevin in Grenoble, France  (p. 73) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.8. (a) The neutron energy distribution (flux) of the J-PARC neutron source for coupled, decoupled and poisoned decoupled moderators  (p. 75) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.9. One of the disc choppers in use at the ISIS neutron facility  (p. 75) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.10. Layout of the ISIS spallation neutron source  (p. 76) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.11. Layout at the SINQ neutron source  (p. 78) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.12. Schematic diagram of the ESS facility  (p. 79) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.13. Plan of a curved neutron guide, indicating different possible neutron paths, labelled `garland' and `zig-zag'  (p. 79) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.14. Schematic diagrams of (a) a multilayer monochromator and (b) a neutron supermirror  (p. 79) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.15. A constant-wavelength neutron powder diffractometer  (p. 81) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.16. Commercially available compact Soller collimators  (p. 82) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.17. The vertically focusing monochromator constructed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Vogt et al  (p. 82) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.18. (a) Schematic cross section of the POLARIS diffractometer at the ISIS facility, UK, and (b) a three-dimensional solid model of the detector chamber  (p. 85) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.19. Raw neutron diffraction patterns from Y3Al5O12 (YAG)  (p. 87) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.20. Parts of the very high resolution neutron powder-diffraction patterns recorded by the backscattering detector bank on the instrument HRPD at ISIS from SrZrO3 at (a) 1403, (b) 1153, (c) 1053, (d) 933 and (e) 293 K  (p. 89) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.21. Neutron powder-diffraction patterns during combustion synthesis of Ti3SiC2 recorded in 400 ms each on the diffractometer D20 at ILL (Riley et al  (p. 90) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.22. Illustrating (a) a CW engineering diffractometer and (b) the formation of a gauge volume at the intersection of the incident and diffracted beams  (p. 90) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.23. Stress distribution for four stress components in an iron powder compacted within a convergent die (see also Zhang et al  (p. 91) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.24. The engineering diffractometer ENGIN-X at ISIS  (p. 91) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.25. Schematic showing regions of intensity–resolution space in which different diffractometer types typically operate  (p. 92) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.26. (a) Exterior and (b) interior of the standard ILL liquid-helium cryostat for cooling samples in the range 1.8–295 K  (p. 97) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.27. Elements of a typical mechanical testing machine used for applying uniaxial stress (pressure) to samples on an engineering neutron diffractometer  (p. 98) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.3.28. (a) Cross section and (b) exterior of a self-loading die for the study of stresses in granular materials  (p. 98) | html | pdf |
    • Tables
      • Table 2.3.1. Properties of the neutron (adapted from Kisi & Howard, 2008)  (p. 68) | html | pdf |
      • Table 2.3.2. Coherent scattering lengths and absorption cross sections (for 25 meV neutrons) for selected isotopes  (p. 69) | html | pdf |
      • Table 2.3.3. Details on selected research reactors  (p. 74) | html | pdf |
      • Table 2.3.4. Details of selected spallation neutron sources  (p. 79) | html | pdf |
      • Table 2.3.5. Advantages of CW and TOF instruments (modified from Kisi & Howard, 2008)  (p. 92) | html | pdf |
      • Table 2.3.6. Suitability of problems to high-resolution or high-intensity diffractometers  (p. 93) | html | pdf |
      • Table 2.3.7. Guidance on choice of wavelength/detector bank  (p. 93) | html | pdf |