International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 2.6, pp. 150-155
https://doi.org/10.1107/97809553602060000941

Chapter 2.6. Non-ambient-temperature powder diffraction

Contents

  • 2.6. Non-ambient-temperature powder diffraction  (pp. 150-155) | html | pdf | chapter contents |
    • 2.6.1. Introduction  (p. 150) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.2. In situ powder diffraction  (p. 150) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.3. Processes of interest  (p. 150) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.4. General system setup of non-ambient chambers  (pp. 150-151) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.4.1. Sample stage  (p. 150) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.4.2. Temperature-control unit, process controller  (pp. 150-151) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.4.3. Vacuum equipment, gas supply  (p. 151) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.4.4. Water cooling  (p. 151) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.4.5. Diffractometer and height-compensation mechanism  (p. 151) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.5. Specimen properties  (p. 151) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.6. High-temperature sample stages  (pp. 151-153) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.6.1. Direct heating: strip heaters  (pp. 151-152) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.6.2. Environmental heating: the oven  (p. 152) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.6.3. Environmental heating: lamp furnace  (pp. 152-153) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.6.4. Domed hot stage  (p. 153) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.7. Low-temperature sample stages  (pp. 153-154) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.7.1. Cryogenic cooling stages/cryostat  (pp. 153-154) | html | pdf |
      • 2.6.7.2. Cryogenic cooling stages/cryostream  (p. 154) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.8. Temperature accuracy  (pp. 154-155) | html | pdf |
    • 2.6.9. Future  (p. 155) | html | pdf |
    • References | html | pdf |
    • Figures
      • Fig. 2.6.1. Typical hardware setup for a non-ambient X-ray diffraction experiment as described in Section 2.6.4; non-ambient chamber, temperature/process-control unit, vacuum/gas equipment, cooling water and goniometer with height-alignment stage connected to a PC  (p. 151) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.2. An Anton Paar HTK 1200N high-temperature oven chamber on a PANalytical Empyrean system equipped with a PIXcel3D detector  (p. 151) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.3. The interior of a typical strip-heater sample stage (Anton Paar HTK 2000N) with heating strip (A), mechanics to compensate strip expansion (B), thermocouple wires (C), heat shield (D) and water-cooled base plate (E)  (p. 152) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.4. A typical furnace heater (Anton Paar HTK 1200N) consisting of sample holder (A), heater (B), thermal insulation (C), water-cooled housing (D), thermocouple (E) and X-ray window (F)  (p. 152) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.5. (a) Upon heating, CaCO3 (the peak at about 29.3° in 2θ) reacts with SiO2 (amorphous); at 853 K the new phase α′L-Ca2SiO4 is formed (the peak between 33 and 32° in 2θ)  (p. 153) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.6. Sample-heating stage (Anton Paar DHS 1100) with lightweight, air-cooled housing (A), dome-shaped X-ray window (B) and heating plate with sample fixation (C)  (p. 153) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.7. Monitoring of layer thickness and roughness by X-ray reflectivity measurements during annealing at 823 K  (p. 153) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.8. Schematic drawing of the Oxford Cryosystems cryostream setup  (p. 154) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.9. Oxford Cryostream (A) mounted on a PANalytical diffractometer for cooling a capillary (B)  (p. 154) | html | pdf |
      • Fig. 2.6.10. Atomic pair distribution function of C60 at room temperature (red) and at 100 K (blue)  (p. 154) | html | pdf |