International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume H
Powder diffraction
Edited by C. J. Gilmore, J. A. Kaduk and H. Schenk

International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 2.6, p. 150

Section 2.6.1. Introduction

C. A. Reissa*

aNoordikslaan 51, 7602 CC Almelo, The Netherlands
Correspondence e-mail: Celeste.Reiss@PANalytical.com

2.6.1. Introduction

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X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is a powerful tool for the in situ investigation of the evolution of a specimen during a non-ambient experiment and for studying structural changes such as lattice expansions and contractions, phase transformations, phase composition, material stability, and alterations in crystallite size. X-rays (and neutrons) are more penetrating than other analytical probes and thus are ideally suited to carrying out in situ studies. Many (if not most) polycrystalline materials undergo transformations under non-ambient conditions. If the aim of an experiment is to discover structure–property correlations, it is crucial that the correct structure be used; thus in situ diffraction experiments are almost mandatory. This chapter highlights the best ways to perform non-ambient experiments, describing the different equipment for slightly and heavily absorbing materials and the corresponding optical pathways.

The focus is on commercially available equipment for laboratory diffractometers and not on special equipment built at synchrotrons and neutron facilities.








































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