Tables for
Volume H
Powder diffraction
Edited by C. J. Gilmore, J. A. Kaduk and H. Schenk

International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 2.6, p. 150

Section 2.6.3. Processes of interest

C. A. Reissa*

aNoordikslaan 51, 7602 CC Almelo, The Netherlands
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2.6.3. Processes of interest

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Many applications of XRPD contribute to industrial and environmental process development. Some typical application areas are heat treatment and annealing, which are frequently used in the production of alloys, ceramics and polymers; the annealing process affects the strength and/or hardness of materials through microstructural changes. Calcination and sintering are used in the fields of catalysts, building materials and zeolites. Dehydration processes in pharmaceuticals are studied to determine the influence of local environment on the microstructure of drugs and how time affects the availability or preservation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. These very important topics can be investigated in the case of hydration or dehydration with a humidity chamber. Such chambers control the relative humidity at the same time as the temperature, and are commercially available. Another important topic for the pharmaceutical industry (see Chapter 7.5[link] ) is the polymorphic transformations that occur under near- and non-ambient conditions. In nearly all fields from alloys to drugs, from building materials to catalysts, and from nanomaterials to single-crystal materials, structure and phase changes are studied during the operation of processes. Increasingly, non-ambient studies also include other parameters besides temperature and gas environment, for example pressure and humidity. Processes such as the charging and discharging of batteries (see Chapter 7.3[link] ) can also be seen as a non-ambient or perhaps better as an `in operando' process.

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