International
Tables for
Crystallography
Volume H
Powder diffraction
Edited by C. J. Gilmore, J. A. Kaduk and H. Schenk

International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 3.7, p. 304

Section 3.7.1.1. History of the PDF/ICDD

J. A. Kaduka,b,c*

aDepartment of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3101 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616, USA,bDepartment of Physics, North Central College, 131 South Loomis Street, Naperville, IL 60540, USA, and cPoly Crystallography Inc., 423 East Chicago Avenue, Naperville, IL 60540, USA
Correspondence e-mail: kaduk@polycrystallography.com

3.7.1.1. History of the PDF/ICDD

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Although powder-diffraction experiments date from the beginning of the 20th century (Debye & Scherrer, 1916[link], 1917[link]; Hull, 1919[link]), what we now know as the Powder Diffraction File and the International Centre for Diffraction Data date from two papers from the Dow Chemical Company (Hanawalt & Rinn, 1936[link]; Hanawalt et al., 1938[link]). The importance of these papers lies not only in the compilation of a database but also in a method for the identification of materials, and how the database was organized to work with the method. Discussion among industrial and academic scientists made the need for a central collection of powder-diffraction patterns apparent. The Joint Committee for Chemical Analysis by Powder Diffraction Methods was founded in 1941. It produced a primary reference of X-ray powder diffraction data, which became known as the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). This effort was supported initially by Committee E-4 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Over the next two decades, other professional bodies added their support, culminating in 1969 with the establishment of the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS). The JCPDS was incorporated as a separate nonprofit corporation to continue the mission of maintaining the PDF. In 1978 the name was changed to the International Centre for Diffraction Data to highlight the global nature of this scientific endeavour. Additional information on the history of the powder method is given in Parrish (1983[link]) and on the early history of the Powder Diffraction File in Hanawalt (1983[link]).

References

Debye, P. & Scherrer, P. (1916). Interference on inordinate orientated particles in Roentgen light. Phys. Z. 17, 277–283.Google Scholar
Debye, P. & Scherrer, P. (1917). Interference on inordinate orientated particles in X-ray light. III. Phys. Z. 18, 291–301.Google Scholar
Hanawalt, J. D. (1983). History of the Powder Diffraction File (PDF). Crystallography in North America, edited by D. McLachlan & J. P. Glusker, pp. 215–219. Buffalo: American Crystallographic Association.Google Scholar
Hanawalt, J. D. & Rinn, H. W. (1936). Identification of crystalline materials. Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 8, 244–247.Google Scholar
Hanawalt, J. D., Rinn, H. W. & Frevel, L. K. (1938). Chemical analysis by X-ray diffraction. Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 10, 457–512.Google Scholar
Hull, A. W. (1919). A new method of chemical analysis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41, 1168–1175.Google Scholar
Parrish, W. (1983). History of the X-ray powder method in the USA. Crystallography in North America, edited by D. McLachlan & J. P. Glusker, pp. 201–214. Buffalo: American Crystallographic Association.Google Scholar








































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