Tables for
Volume H
Powder diffraction
Edited by C. J. Gilmore, J. A. Kaduk and H. Schenk

International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 3.9, pp. 369-370

Section Phase-specific methods: diffraction SRMs, round-robin samples and synthetic mixtures

I. C. Madsen,a* N. V. Y. Scarlett,a R. Kleebergb and K. Knorrc

aCSIRO Mineral Resources, Private Bag 10, Clayton South 3169, Victoria, Australia,bTU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Mineralogie, Brennhausgasse 14, Freiberg, D-09596, Germany, and cBruker AXS GmbH, Oestliche Rheinbrückenstr. 49, 76187 Karlsruhe, Germany
Correspondence e-mail: Phase-specific methods: diffraction SRMs, round-robin samples and synthetic mixtures

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In contrast to elemental compositional analysis, where standard reference materials (SRMs) are widespread, there are only a very limited number of SRMs available for diffraction-based QPA. Prominent examples are SRMs for the cement industry [NIST reference material clinker 8486 (Stutzman & Leigh, 2000[link]) and ordinary Portland cement NIST SRM 2686] or ceramics materials (silicon nitride CRM BAM-S001) (Peplinski et al., 2004[link]). Similar to elemental standards, the certified values do not necessarily represent the true composition. Rather, they are published values that are typically averaged over the results from different independent methods, instruments and laboratories. Therefore, confidence limits of concentrations are provided that may be much larger than estimated standard deviations of concentrations within a single laboratory.

Finally, a number of inter-laboratory tests, or round robins, have been conducted on synthetic mixtures in order to set benchmarks for particular materials and/or the application of methods. Examples range from well ordered, high-symmetry phases discussed in earlier sections of this chapter (Madsen et al., 2001[link]; Scarlett et al., 2002[link]) to standard mixtures of geological material, granite and bauxites (Bish & Post, 1993[link]), and technical products like artificial Portland cements (De la Torre & Aranda, 2003[link]) where relative biases of 2–3% for the main phases and 5–10% for minor phases were found.

Very recently, the precision and accuracy of QPA for the analysis of Portland clinker and cement were determined for synthetic mixtures and commercial samples. The scatter of the results from the inter-laboratory comparison, and the fact that individual errors are much smaller than the standard deviations of all submitted results, points to the widespread presence of user-dependent systematic errors (Léon-Reina et al., 2009[link]).

One of the most challenging round robins is the Reynolds Cup (Ottner et al., 2000[link]; McCarty, 2002[link]; Kleeberg, 2005[link]; Omotoso et al., 2006[link]; Raven & Self, 2017[link]), organized biannually since the year 2000 by the Clay Minerals Society. Synthetic mixtures representing typical sedimentary rock types are analysed and require a very high level of sample preparation and analytical skills because of the presence of a variety of clay minerals.

While most round robins have dealt with inorganic materials, one for pharmaceutical materials was organised by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) together with the Pharmaceutical Powder XRD symposium series (PPXRD) (Fawcett et al., 2010[link]). A major outcome was the identification of operator errors in all steps of the analysis to be the largest source of error. This highlights the importance of reducing systematic errors for improving accuracy in QPA.

As a concluding remark, a variety of factors may influence the precision and accuracy of QPA. Nonetheless, better than 1 wt% agreement may be achieved for simple systems of well crystallized material. Moderately complex mixtures such as those routinely observed in cement plants and in the mining industry can be typically analysed at a 1 wt% level of accuracy provided that the analyst chooses the most appropriate sample-preparation, data-collection and analysis methodologies for the samples in question.


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