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High-pressure devices
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, ch. 2.7, pp. 156-173 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
Chapter 2.7. High-pressure devices Nowadays, high pressure is a routine variable for powder and single-crystal diffraction experiments. By ... cooled or heated to unprecedented magnitudes. The results obtained provide a broad perspective for understanding both fundamental physics and complex processes ... of the Mariana Trench, 11km below the sea's surface. A relatively low pressure change, to about 0.3MPa at a ...

High-pressure diffraction data corrections
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.15, pp. 167-168 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... of the reflections of the diamond anvils for measurements in a DAC. The set of corrections is usually described for the specific pressure vessel. For a typical DAC with the anvils (about 1.7mm high) supported directly ... the gasket edges. This effect can be avoided by choosing a sufficiently small crystal or by applying a sufficiently narrow ...

Pressure determination
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.14, pp. 166-167 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
Pressure determination 2.7.14. Pressure determination Pressure determination inside a high-pressure sample chamber is most straightforward in piston-and ... of mechanical pressure gauge are available. In the Bourdon gauge, a spiral metal tube that is pressurized inside unwinds and moves a pointer around a precise scale. Electrical resistance gauges are ...

High-pressure neutron diffraction
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.13, p. 166 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... of small sample volume preferred for high-pressure devices. Consequently, a prohibitively long measurement time would be required to obtain meaningful ... Bridgman-type opposed-anvil press, with flat anvils separated by a gasket of pipestone, was increased severalfold by making a recess at the centre of the pressure chamber of ...

High-pressure chamber and gasket in the DAC
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.12, pp. 165-166 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... DAC 2.7.12. High-pressure chamber and gasket in the DAC A high-pressure device should be adjusted to the experiments planned ... for example amorphous boron, corundum or diamond powders mixed with a resin. Owing to the insulating properties of such a gasket, the pressure dependence of the electric, dielectric and ...

Hydrostatic conditions
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.11, pp. 164-165 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... diffraction experiments. To secure hydrostaticity, the sample is submerged in a hydrostatic medium. The pressure and temperature ranges of the planned ... pressure across the sample. It is also important to protect a solid sample from dissolution in the hydrostatic fluid. The dissolved ... recrystallize at higher pressure in an undesired form. For example, a fine powder may recrystallize into a few large and ...

Sample preparation
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.10, p. 164 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... Sample preparation Several basic techniques can be used to prepare a sample for a high-pressure experiment, for example: (i) A solid sample can be mounted under ambient conditions in ...

Powder diffraction with the DAC
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.9, pp. 163-164 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... within the sample (particularly as it remains in contact with a diamond, which is the best known thermal conductor) and nonhydrostatic ... experiment about the [omega] axis. On the other hand, for a sample consisting of tens of grains it is possible to ... High-pressure powder diffraction patterns can also be affected by a low signal-to-noise ratio, too few crystal grains, ...

Single-crystal data collection
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.8, pp. 162-163 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... collection 2.7.8. Single-crystal data collection It is essential that a crystal sample is centred precisely on the diffractometer. Optical centring of a crystal is hampered by the limited view of the sample ... generalized for any reflections, not necessarily at equivalent positions (Dera & Katrusiak, 1999 ). These methods are very precise, but they ...

Completeness of data
Katrusiak, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2018). Vol. H, Section 2.7.7, pp. 161-162 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000942 ]
... the sample and can obscure the exit of reflections. For a typical DAC working in transmission mode, the incident beam can ... defines the accessible region of the reciprocal lattice in such a way that the Ewald sphere can be inclined to the ... the accessible region of reciprocal space has the form of a round flat cushion, with surfaces touching at the cushion ...

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