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Goniometer designs
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5, pp. 32-36 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
Goniometer designs 2.1.5. Goniometer designs A goniometer, by definition, is an instrument that either measures an angle or allows an object to be rotated to a precise angular position. In an X-ray diffractometer the purpose ... of practical reasons, most goniometers consist of two distinct components, a goniometer base and a specimen stage, with the specimen ...

Multiple-beam-path systems
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.3.1, p. 35 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... usually characterized by integrating more than one beam path on a single goniometer, employing different, complementary beam-path components to meet ... ray optics can be used to implement different instrument geometries. A significant driving force behind such multipurpose instrumentation is convenience, i.e. to serve a maximum range of applications and specimen types, ideally without ...

Hybrid beam-path systems
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.3, pp. 35-36 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... instrumentation as well as specific application requirements has led to a few specialized goniometer designs. Two major representatives of such designs ... usually characterized by integrating more than one beam path on a single goniometer, employing different, complementary beam-path components to meet ... ray optics can be used to implement different instrument geometries. A significant driving force behind such multipurpose instrumentation is convenience, ...

Accuracy and precision
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.2, pp. 34-35 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... and the sphere of confusion of specimen positioning in space. A detailed discussion is given by He (2009 ). Depending on ... achievable. Typical requirements, often not compatible with each other, are: (a) mounting of heavy and bulky beam-path components and specimens ... one-dimensional detectors range from less than 1kg up to a few kg, while large two-dimensional detectors may weigh ...

Specimen stage
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.1.2, p. 34 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... may be oriented vertically as well as horizontally. To orient a specimen in all possible orientations in space, the specimen stage ... the laboratory and rotation axes is shown in Fig. 2.1.9 (a) for a typical Eulerian cradle. The [omega] angle is defined as ...

Goniometer base
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.1.1, pp. 32-34 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
Goniometer base 2.1.5.1.1. Goniometer base A typical goniometer base provides two coaxial and independently driven axes ... diffraction plane. These two axes are the main axes of a goniometer, since they have the most effect on the accuracy ... The diffraction plane and the axes are generally described by a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, as illustrated in Fig. ...

Geometrical conventions and scan modes
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.1, pp. 32-34 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... choice of signs for angles (left- versus right-handed). A comprehensive treatment of geometrical conventions has recently been given by ... 2.1.3.1.2 ) and were equipped with single-axis goniometers. In such a goniometer the single axis drives two shafts which are mechanically ... as they represent the more general notations. 2.1.5.1.1. Goniometer base | | A typical goniometer base provides two coaxial and independently driven ...

Non-coplanar beam-path systems
Kern, A.  International Tables for Crystallography (2019). Vol. H, Section 2.1.5.3.2, pp. 35-36 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000936 ]
... systems Non-coplanar (or `in-plane') grazing-incidence diffraction is a technique for investigating the near-surface region of specimens (ten ... plane data collection. Firstly, as is obvious from Fig. 2.1.11 , a dual-goniometer system may be employed. The most sophisticated implementation ... ray bench, allowing sequential coplanar and in-plane measurements. As a further alternative, a single goniometer may be used, with ...

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