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 Results for DC.creator="F." AND DC.creator="M." AND DC.creator="Richards" in section 3.2.2 of volume C   page 1 of 2 pages.
Description and discussion of techniques
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2, pp. 156-159 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
... been adapted for the measurement of crystal densities by Low & Richards (1952a). For the original solution measurements, a precision of ... use of a micro-Westphal balance designed for the purpose (Richards & Thompson, 1952). With an adequate thermostat, measurements may be ... under hydrostatic pressures from 1 to 2000atm (1atm 101325Pa) (Kundrot & Richards, 1988). The general principle of using high-polymer- ...

Volumenometry
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.6, p. 158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
Volumenometry 3.2.2.6. Volumenometry This is the only technique not requiring immersion of the sample in a liquid medium. The technique is therefore used in instances where the specimen would be attacked by the customary immersion media, or where one wishes to work over a temperature range where liquid media would be ...

Immersion microbalance
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.5, p. 158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
... of the latter, and the volume of the crystal (Low & Richards, 1952b, 1954; Richards, 1954). A horizontal quartz fibre, free at one end ... the crystal and its mother liquor. References Low, B. W. & Richards, F. M. (1952b). Determination of protein crystal densities. ...

Method of Archimedes
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.4, p. 158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
Method of Archimedes 3.2.2.4. Method of Archimedes The specimen is weighed in air and again in a liquid of accurately known density. From the apparent loss of weight the volume is computed, and thence the density (Reilly & Rae, 1954). The technique requires little special equipment and is capable of great ...

Pycnometry
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.3, p. 158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
... high pressures. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 34, 563-584. Syromyatnikov, F. V. (1935). The micropycnometric method for the determination of ...

Flotation method
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.2, p. 158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
Flotation method 3.2.2.2. Flotation method Although historically used much earlier, this technique is essentially an approximation to the gradient-tube method. The specimen is immersed in a liquid, and a denser or less dense liquid miscible with the first is added until the sample neither rises nor sinks in the solution ...

Sensitivity
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.1.3, p. 158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
Sensitivity 3.2.2.1.3. Sensitivity The range of density covered by a column, and thus the accuracy of the determination, is controlled by the liquids or liquid mixtures chosen for the top and bottom components. A precision of about gml-1 can easily be obtained without any special precautions. If narrow-range columns ...

Suitable substances for columns
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.1.2, pp. 157-158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
... Sodium chloride 1.20 Kerosene 0.79 -0.5 -0.8 Potassium chloride 1.40 m-Xylene 0.86 -0.85 Potassium iodide 1.63 Chlorobenzene 1.10 -1.1 Iron ... in order to change their range. References Meyrowitz, R., Cuttitta, F. & Hickling, N. (1959). A new diluent for bromoform in ...

Technique
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.1.1, pp. 156-157 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
... use of a micro-Westphal balance designed for the purpose (Richards & Thompson, 1952). With an adequate thermostat, measurements may be ... under hydrostatic pressures from 1 to 2000atm (1atm 101325Pa) (Kundrot & Richards, 1988). The general principle of using high-polymer-based ... 1-17. British Standards Institution, London, England. Kundrot, C. E. & Richards, F. M. (1988). Effect of hydrostatic pressure on ...

Gradient tube
Richards, F. M.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 3.2.2.1, pp. 156-158 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000586 ]
... been adapted for the measurement of crystal densities by Low & Richards (1952a). For the original solution measurements, a precision of ... use of a micro-Westphal balance designed for the purpose (Richards & Thompson, 1952). With an adequate thermostat, measurements may be ... under hydrostatic pressures from 1 to 2000atm (1atm 101325Pa) (Kundrot & Richards, 1988). The general principle of using high-polymer- ...

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