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X-ray diffraction methods: polycrystalline
Parrish, W., Wilson, A. J. C. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 5.2, pp. 491-504 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... be difficult. Aberrations can be divided broadly into two classes: (i) geometrical and (ii) physical. The geometrical aberrations are those that ... position of the line profile. The three usual features are: (i) the centroid (centre of gravity, mean, average) of the wavelength ... centroid and W the variance of the geometrical aberrations and I'' and I''' are second and third derivatives of the ...

Detectors for X-rays
Amemiya, Y., Arndt, U. W., Buras, B., Chikawa, J., Gerward, L., Langford, J. I., Parrish, W. and Wolff, P. M. de  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, pp. 618-638 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
... strongly ionizing radiations such as X-rays and electrons are: (i) For a given total exposure E the relationship between D ... Hellner, 1954). 7.1.2. Geiger counters2 | | W. Parrish f++ andJ. I. Langford e Geiger-Müller counters (Geiger & Müller, 1928) ...

Factors determining accuracy
Parrish, W., Wilson, A. J. C. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.13, pp. 501-504 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... experimental accuracy of the back reflections is lowered because of (i) their lower intensity, (ii) their lower peak-to-background ratio ... 2) The lower-angle reflections show the converse effects of (i) higher intensity, (ii) higher peak-to-background ratio, (iii) less ...

Instrumental line-profile-shape standards
Parrish, W., Wilson, A. J. C. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.12, p. 501 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... Other materials used as instrumental standards include BaF2 (Louër & Langford, 1988) and KCl (Scardi, Lutterotti & Maistrelli, 1994). Both are ... 100°(2[theta]) with Cu K[alpha] radiation. References Berkum, J. van, Sprong, G. J. M., de Keijser, Th. H., Delhez, R. & Sonneveld, E. ...

Powder-diffraction standards
Parrish, W., Wilson, A. J. C. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.10, pp. 498-499 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... thus not suitable for determining instrumental line profiles. References Berkum, J. van, Sprong, G. J. M., de Keijser, Th. H., Delhez, R. & Sonneveld, E. J. (1995). The optimum standard specimen for X-ray ...

Powder and related techniques: X-ray techniques
Parrish, W. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 2.3, pp. 42-79 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000578 ]
... 1969), Wölfel (1981), Göbel (1982) and Louër & Langford (1988). The high-quality crystal required causes a large ... the surface of the specimen which asymmetrically broadens the profile (Langford & Wilson, 1962). The peak and centroid are shifted to ... powder diffraction studies because it provides reference data with correct I's and d's, free of sample defects, preferred ...

Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity
Parrish, W. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.4.4, pp. 621-622 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity 7.1.4.4. Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity The quantum-counting efficiency E of the detector, its variation with wavelength, and electronic discrimination determine the response to the X-ray spectrum. E is determined by where fT is the fraction of the incident radiation transmitted by the window ...
     [more results from section 7.1.4 in volume C]

Resolution, discrimination, efficiency
Parrish, W. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.3.4, p. 619 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
Resolution, discrimination, efficiency 7.1.3.4. Resolution, discrimination, efficiency The topics of energy resolution, pulse-height discrimination, quantum-counting efficiency, and linearity are common to proportional, scintillation and solid-state counters, and are treated in Subsections 7.1.4.3.-7.1.4.5. References International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, p. 619 © International Union ...
     [more results from section 7.1.3 in volume C]

Geiger counters
Parrish, W. and Langford, J. I.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.2, pp. 618-619 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
... types of counter, described in Sections 7.1.3.-7.1.8. References Eastabrook, J. N. & Hughes, J. W. (1953). Elimination of dead-time corrections in monitored Geiger-counter X-ray measurements. J. Sci. Instrum. 30, 317-320. Geiger, H. & Müller, ...

Other factors
Lipson, H., Langford, J. I. and Hu, H.-C.  International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 6.2.7, p. 598 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000601 ]
... . For the retigraph, see Mackay (1960). References Bouman, J. & de Jong, W. F. (1938). Die Intensitäten der ... photographierten reziproken Netzebene. Physica (Utrecht), 5, 817-832. Buerger, M. J. (1940). The correction of X-ray diffraction intensities for ... Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 26, 637-642. Buerger, M. J. (1944). The photography of the reciprocal lattice. American ...

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