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X-ray diffraction methods: polycrystalline
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 5.2, pp. 491-504 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... be difficult. Aberrations can be divided broadly into two classes: (i) geometrical and (ii) physical. The geometrical aberrations are those that ... position of the line profile. The three usual features are: (i) the centroid (centre of gravity, mean, average) of the wavelength ... centroid and W the variance of the geometrical aberrations and I'' and I''' are second and third derivatives of the ...
Detectors for X-rays
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, pp. 618-638 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
... strongly ionizing radiations such as X-rays and electrons are: (i) For a given total exposure E the relationship between D ... Hellner, 1954). 7.1.2. Geiger counters2 | | W. Parrish f++ andJ. I. Langford e Geiger-Müller counters (Geiger & Müller, 1928) ...
Factors determining accuracy
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.13, pp. 501-504 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... experimental accuracy of the back reflections is lowered because of (i) their lower intensity, (ii) their lower peak-to-background ratio ... 2) The lower-angle reflections show the converse effects of (i) higher intensity, (ii) higher peak-to-background ratio, (iii) less ...
Instrumental line-profile-shape standards
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.12, p. 501 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... Other materials used as instrumental standards include BaF2 (Louër & Langford, 1988) and KCl (Scardi, Lutterotti & Maistrelli, 1994). Both are ... 100°(2[theta]) with Cu K[alpha] radiation. References Berkum, J. van, Sprong, G. J. M., de Keijser, Th. H., Delhez, R. & Sonneveld, E. ...
Powder-diffraction standards
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.10, pp. 498-499 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... thus not suitable for determining instrumental line profiles. References Berkum, J. van, Sprong, G. J. M., de Keijser, Th. H., Delhez, R. & Sonneveld, E. J. (1995). The optimum standard specimen for X-ray ...
Powder and related techniques: X-ray techniques
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 2.3, pp. 42-79 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000578 ]
... 1969), Wölfel (1981), Göbel (1982) and Louër & Langford (1988). The high-quality crystal required causes a large ... the surface of the specimen which asymmetrically broadens the profile (Langford & Wilson, 1962). The peak and centroid are shifted to ... powder diffraction studies because it provides reference data with correct I's and d's, free of sample defects, preferred ...
Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.4.4, pp. 621-622 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity 7.1.4.4. Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity The quantum-counting efficiency E of the detector, its variation with wavelength, and electronic discrimination determine the response to the X-ray spectrum. E is determined by where fT is the fraction of the incident radiation transmitted by the window ...
[more results from section 7.1.4 in volume C]
Resolution, discrimination, efficiency
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.3.4, p. 619 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
Resolution, discrimination, efficiency 7.1.3.4. Resolution, discrimination, efficiency The topics of energy resolution, pulse-height discrimination, quantum-counting efficiency, and linearity are common to proportional, scintillation and solid-state counters, and are treated in Subsections 7.1.4.3.-7.1.4.5. References International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, p. 619 © International Union ...
[more results from section 7.1.3 in volume C]
Geiger counters
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.2, pp. 618-619 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
... types of counter, described in Sections 7.1.3.-7.1.8. References Eastabrook, J. N. & Hughes, J. W. (1953). Elimination of dead-time corrections in monitored Geiger-counter X-ray measurements. J. Sci. Instrum. 30, 317-320. Geiger, H. & Müller, ...
Other factors
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 6.2.7, p. 598 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000601 ]
... . For the retigraph, see Mackay (1960). References Bouman, J. & de Jong, W. F. (1938). Die Intensitäten der ... photographierten reziproken Netzebene. Physica (Utrecht), 5, 817-832. Buerger, M. J. (1940). The correction of X-ray diffraction intensities for ... Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 26, 637-642. Buerger, M. J. (1944). The photography of the reciprocal lattice. American ...
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 5.2, pp. 491-504 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... be difficult. Aberrations can be divided broadly into two classes: (i) geometrical and (ii) physical. The geometrical aberrations are those that ... position of the line profile. The three usual features are: (i) the centroid (centre of gravity, mean, average) of the wavelength ... centroid and W the variance of the geometrical aberrations and I'' and I''' are second and third derivatives of the ...
Detectors for X-rays
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, pp. 618-638 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
... strongly ionizing radiations such as X-rays and electrons are: (i) For a given total exposure E the relationship between D ... Hellner, 1954). 7.1.2. Geiger counters2 | | W. Parrish f++ andJ. I. Langford e Geiger-Müller counters (Geiger & Müller, 1928) ...
Factors determining accuracy
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.13, pp. 501-504 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... experimental accuracy of the back reflections is lowered because of (i) their lower intensity, (ii) their lower peak-to-background ratio ... 2) The lower-angle reflections show the converse effects of (i) higher intensity, (ii) higher peak-to-background ratio, (iii) less ...
Instrumental line-profile-shape standards
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.12, p. 501 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... Other materials used as instrumental standards include BaF2 (Louër & Langford, 1988) and KCl (Scardi, Lutterotti & Maistrelli, 1994). Both are ... 100°(2[theta]) with Cu K[alpha] radiation. References Berkum, J. van, Sprong, G. J. M., de Keijser, Th. H., Delhez, R. & Sonneveld, E. ...
Powder-diffraction standards
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 5.2.10, pp. 498-499 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000596 ]
... thus not suitable for determining instrumental line profiles. References Berkum, J. van, Sprong, G. J. M., de Keijser, Th. H., Delhez, R. & Sonneveld, E. J. (1995). The optimum standard specimen for X-ray ...
Powder and related techniques: X-ray techniques
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 2.3, pp. 42-79 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000578 ]
... 1969), Wölfel (1981), Göbel (1982) and Louër & Langford (1988). The high-quality crystal required causes a large ... the surface of the specimen which asymmetrically broadens the profile (Langford & Wilson, 1962). The peak and centroid are shifted to ... powder diffraction studies because it provides reference data with correct I's and d's, free of sample defects, preferred ...
Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.4.4, pp. 621-622 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity 7.1.4.4. Quantum-counting efficiency and linearity The quantum-counting efficiency E of the detector, its variation with wavelength, and electronic discrimination determine the response to the X-ray spectrum. E is determined by where fT is the fraction of the incident radiation transmitted by the window ...
[more results from section 7.1.4 in volume C]
Resolution, discrimination, efficiency
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.3.4, p. 619 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
Resolution, discrimination, efficiency 7.1.3.4. Resolution, discrimination, efficiency The topics of energy resolution, pulse-height discrimination, quantum-counting efficiency, and linearity are common to proportional, scintillation and solid-state counters, and are treated in Subsections 7.1.4.3.-7.1.4.5. References International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, ch. 7.1, p. 619 © International Union ...
[more results from section 7.1.3 in volume C]
Geiger counters
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 7.1.2, pp. 618-619 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000604 ]
... types of counter, described in Sections 7.1.3.-7.1.8. References Eastabrook, J. N. & Hughes, J. W. (1953). Elimination of dead-time corrections in monitored Geiger-counter X-ray measurements. J. Sci. Instrum. 30, 317-320. Geiger, H. & Müller, ...
Other factors
International Tables for Crystallography (2006). Vol. C, Section 6.2.7, p. 598 [ doi:10.1107/97809553602060000601 ]
... . For the retigraph, see Mackay (1960). References Bouman, J. & de Jong, W. F. (1938). Die Intensitäten der ... photographierten reziproken Netzebene. Physica (Utrecht), 5, 817-832. Buerger, M. J. (1940). The correction of X-ray diffraction intensities for ... Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 26, 637-642. Buerger, M. J. (1944). The photography of the reciprocal lattice. American ...
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