Superspace Group Finderhelp
3D derivatives of (3+1)D space groups in analytical form
  • Displays real-space sections of superspace groups
  • Finds parental (3+1)D superspace group for a set of 3D groups
  • Of special use for phase transitions and modular structures
Browse (3+1)D groups...

First, select the crystal system, then browse the categories from left to right.
Systems Classes 3D groups (3+1)D groups

3+1D to 3D group transformation for commensurate modulation

Modulation vector q=(D1/N1, D2/N2, D3/N3), or D/N if there is only one non-zero component.
3D derivatives inherit basis of parental (3+1)D group.
To obtain specific group orientation and symbol a basis transformation might be necessary.


Constraints of t level. Variable n stands for any integer.

Constraints of Q-vector components

...or search for 3D group set

Type desired 3D space groups separated by space.

This version of Superspace Group Finder was provided by Laboratoire de Cristallographie
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Concept and content: Ivan Orlov
Programming: Nicolas Schoeni
Project review: Gervais Chapuis
The authors are indebted to Vaclav Petricek, Michal Dusek and Lukas Palatinus for JANA2000, without which this project would not have been possible. Lukas Palatinus and Michal Dusek are also thanked for their superb assistance with group derivations.